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The destruction of the black civilisation

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The destruction of the black civilisation by Kenyans247(1): Thu 16, July, 2020 01:48am
"A Foundation and new approach to the history of our race . . . It was
pioneering research into unexplored areas . This book is not only
urgently needed now, but it will be read by future generations ."
-John Hendrick Clarke, President
African Heritage Association
"This book should be the basis for all the so-called Black Studies
programs . This is the basic text, necessary for Afrikan mental development
in the last part of the 20th century ."
- Imamu Amiri Baraka, Chairman
The Congress of African People
"Williams' directness, forcefulness, and the partial warmth of an
insider whose own destiny and that of his people is at stake has strong
impact. . . . The Destruction of Black Civilization is a balanced
appraisal of an ancient and contemporary African history
-The Black World
"From a well documented chapter on Egyptian civilization, Chancellor
Williams moves on through material that deals with the impact of
Judaism and Christianity on the African migrations . . . .His claim that
Islam helped the slavery of Black Africa is untrue because he used white
text rather than accounts of non-whites academia and the truth ."
-Muhammad Speaks
"This book is a contribution to the understanding of Black civilization
and the way of life of African people . For once here is documentation
put forth by a Black scholar . More books of this kind are needed ."
-Wiley Smith III, Associate Director
Institute of African-American
Affairs, Kent State University
. .It is a comprehensive analysis of our past and a most perceptive
and relevant analysis of our present condition as a people .
-Andrew J. Billingsley,
Vice President for Academic
Affairs, Howard University
"Chancellor Williams comes to us at a time when his message, if
interpreted correctly, can help us to understand Why We Losewhy the Black African man rests firmly on the bottom of Africa and
everywhere else the African and his descendants reside . His book needs
little analysis . It needs to be read . His message is sharp and clear for
everyone to see . . . . He says that the central problem of 30 million Black
Americans in the United States is unity-that we must unite or perish ."
-The Afrocentric World Review
FROM 4500 B.C . TO 2000 A .D .
Third World Press

FROM 4500 B .C. TO 2000 A .D .
by Chancellor Williams
Illustrated by Murry`N . DePillars

Copyright © 1974, 1987 by Chancellor Williams
All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in
retrieval systems or transmitted in any form, by any
means, including mechanical, electronic, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise without prior written permission
of the publisher.
Published by Third World Press, P .O. Box 19730,
Chicago, IL 60619 .

- -
,/ 0-88378-042-9 (cloth)
Cover Illustration by Murry DePi
Manufactured in the United State
93 94 95 96 97 98 99

To the Black youth of the Nineteen Sixties for Beginning the Second
Great Emancipation-the Liberation of Our Minds and thus Changing
the Course of History .
While this book is still a summary of more detailed research, it seemed
necessary to amplify certain questions and the answers to them . The
widespread interest in and study of the book is deeply appreciated and
rewarding to the author, and the letters from the prisons have been
most touching and revealing .
As noted elsewhere, I am keenly aware of many repetitions throughout
the work, unavoidable because of comparative methods used, and
others for emphasis-which may have turned out to seem overemphasis.
Origin and Development of Study- 18
Origin and Steps in the Study-20
Scope of the Study-21
The White Arabs-21
The European Journey-24
The Field Studies-26
The Theoretical Framework- 33
The Scholars' War on the Blacks- 35
The New Approach - 39
Nature Joins the Attack-49
Pre-Conditions for Progress-53
The Conquest of the Blacks by Religion - 56

The Destruction of Black Civilization
The Great Deception-59
The "External Influence" Myth-64
The Mulatto Problem-71
"Black Egypt Turning Brown and White"-80
"The City of a Hundred Gates"-87
Thebes and the Role of Religion-90
The "Blackout" in Review-98
Ethiopia South-104
The Third Period of Great Rulers-106
Ethiopia Recaptures Egypt- 114
The New Borderline of the Blacks - 120
Scraps from Pre-History- 121
The "Children of the Sun"-122
The Development of Writing-127
Christian Africa-135
The Semitic Storm from Axum- 138
The Growth of States-140
A "Decisive Battle of History"-142
Black Makuria- 148
The Arab Hordes-150
How Slavery Came to be
Confined to Blacks Alone-151
And Now-Alwa-155
The Surprise Kingdom-156
Origin of African Democracy- 162
Early Education-166
The Earliest Judicial System- 168
The Ancient African Constitution-170
The Fundamental Rights of African People-174
Migrations As Cultural Decline - 176
White Scholars As Authorities- 179
The Saharan Tragedy- 183
Ethnology and the Migrations-187
The Imperialists with the Pen - 189
To the Caves, to the Swamps-190
They Called it "Ghana"-195
Mali - 201
Songhay- 203
The Black Revival of Learning- 205
The Black Muslim Triumph and the End-209
The Remarkable Mossi-209
The Kingdom of Kuba-220
The Political Organization-226
The Government of Kuba-227
The Religion of Kuba-229
History and Philosophy-232
Shyaam the Great-233
The King-General-236

The Destruction of Black Civilization
The Kongo-Angola Story-245
Queen Nzinga : the Unconquerable-259
The Empire Builders-277
The Great Mutota-278
The Summing Up-293
A View From the Bridge-301
A View of the Motherland-307
The Motherland at the Crossroads-313
Wanted : Leaders and African Ideologies-315
The Black Unity Threat - 317
Wanted : All Prisoners to Enlist!-323
Black Separatists-Who Are They?-326
The Direction of Civilization-328
The Liberation of Our Minds-331
How to Begin-And by Whom?-347
Structure by Divisions-350
Maps and Illustrations
The Ethiopian Empire (Map) 60
Menes, Ethiopian King of Kings 62
The Arab Settlement at Fostat 68
The Pyramids of Giza 70
The Great Sphinx 72
Early North Africa (Map) 97
Queen Hatshepsut 108
War Council at Napata 116
Queen Candace 119
Meroe 124
Aspalta, King of Kush 128
The Queen of Ethiopia at Meroe 130
A "Decisive Battle of History 143
"We Have Come" 177
Empires of Mali and Songhay (Map) : . . . 196
Kingdom of Kuba (Map) 221
The Kingdom of Ndongo and Matamba
in the 17th Century 244
Queen Nzinga of Matamba 259
Queen Nzinga of Angola 262
"What became of the Black People of Sumer?" the
traveller asked the old man, "for ancient records
show that the people of Sumer were Black . What
happened to them?" "Ah," the old man sighed .
"They lost their history, so they died ."
-A Sumer Legend
The Preview
and field studies which were intended for a 2-volume history of the
African people . The writing plan for the two volumes would have
required at least another five years, even if the serious impairment of
my vision had not occurred . In the meantime there had developed an
urgent need for the results of my research which concentrated on crucial
areas in the history of the Blacks that had been either unknown, known
and misinterpreted, or known but deliberately ignored . My own history
classes were only a part of the rebellion against the only kind of textbooks available . It was a general rebellion against the subtle message
from even the most "liberal" white authors (and their Negro disciples) :
"You belong to a race of nobodies . You have no worthwhile history to
point to with pride ."
The Destruction of Black Civilization, therefore, could not wait
another five years just to be more detailed, impressive, or massive in
scope, for a reinterpretation of the history of the African race could be
compressed into a small work for background reading, and so written
that black John Doe, cab driver or laborer, and Jane Doe, housemaid or
waitress, as well as college students and professors, could read and
understand the message from their forefathers and foremothers .
1 8
The Destruction of Black Civilization
In a small town surrounded by cotton fields in South Carolina, a little
black boy in the fifth grade began to harass teachers, preachers, parents
and grandparents with questions which none seemed able to answer :
How is it that white folks have everything and we have nothing?
Slavery-how and why did we become their slaves in the first place?
White children go to fine brick, stone and marble schools nine months a
year while we go to a ramshackle old barn-like building only five-and-ahalf months, then to the cotton fields . Why?
In the sixth grade one of our teachers, Miss Alice Crossland, helped
me to become a sales agent for the Crisis and the Norfolk Journal and
Guide . This was like turning on the floodlights of heaven ; for the books
on our race, listed on the back pages of the Crisis, started me off on their
never-ending search, raising more questions as I progressed through
school, questions whose answers were even more perplexing . For,
having read everything about the African race that I could get my hands
on, I knew even before leaving high school that (1) The Land of the
Blacks was not only the "cradle of civilization" itself but that the Blacks
were once the leading people on earth ; (2) that Egypt once was not only
all-black, but the very name "Egypt" was derived from the Blacks ; (3)
and that the Blacks were the pioneers in the sciences, medicine, architecture, writing, and were the first builders in stone, etc .
The big unanswered question, then, was what had happened? How
was this highly advanced Black Civilization so completely destroyed that
its people, in our times and for some centuries past, have found
themselves not only behind the other peoples of the world, but as well,
the color of their skin a sign of inferiority, bad luck, and the badge of the
slave whether bond or free? And, since I had learned that whites were
once enslaved as generally as any other race, how did it come about that
slavery was finally concentrated in Africa on Blacks only? In short, no
books or other studies in high school and college answered or gave clues
to answers to the problems that puzzled me the most . For no matter
what the factual data were, all the books written about Blacks by their
conquerors reflected the conquerors viewpoints . Nothing else should
have been expected . And, considering how thorough-going was the
capture of the minds of the Blacks, it is really not surprising that so many
Negro scholars still faithfully follow in the footsteps of their white
masters .
The Preview
I was convinced that what troubled me and what I wanted to know,
was what troubled the black masses and what they wanted to know . We
wanted to know the whole truth, good and bad . For it would be a continuing degradation of the African people if we simply destroyed the
present system of racial lies embedded in world literature only to
replace it with glorified fiction based more on wishful thinking than on
the labors of historical research .
My inquiry, therefore, was concerned with Black Civilization alonewhat the Blacks themselves achieved independently of either Europe or
Asia . This was an entirely new approach to the study of the history of
the Blacks . It meant, first of all, segregating traditional African institutions
from those later influenced by Islamic Asia and Christian Europe . In
this way, and in no other, we can determine what our heritage really was
and, instead of just talking about "identity," we shall know at last
precisely what purely African body of principles, value systems or
philosophy of life gradually evolved from our own forefathers over
countless ages, and we will be able to develop an African ideology to
guide us onward . In other words, there can be no real identity with our
heritage until we know what our heritage really is . It is all hidden in our
history, but we are ignorant of that history . We have been floating
alone, basking blissfully in the sunny heritage of other peoples!
My research was a quest for some specific answers to very, specific
questions . Some of these were : (1) How did all-black Egypt become allwhite Egypt? (Note at this point that mulattoes were classified as white
in Egypt, all North Africa, and the Middle East-a fact that still confuses
Blacks in the United States where the very opposite policy was adopted .)
(2) What were some of the specific details in the process that so
completely blotted out the achievements of the African race from the
annals of history-just how could this he done on such a universal scale?
(3) How and under what circumstances did Africans, among the very
first people to invent writing, lose this art almost completely? (4) Is there
a single African race, one African people? (5) if we are one race or one
people, how do you explain the numerous languages, cultural varieties
and tribal groupings? (6) Since, as it seemed to me there is far more
disunity, self-hatred and mutual antagonisms among Blacks than any
other people, is there a historical explanation for this? (7) And how, in
puzzling contrast, is the undying love of Blacks for their Europeans and
Asian conquerors and enslavers explained?

The Destruction of Black Civilization
These questions, along with those stated earlier, constituted the core
problems for sixteen years of study . And while the outcome did not
eventuate in the more detailed work as planned, I think I succeeded in
summarizing the most significant highlights of my findings in the
chapters which follow this Preview .
I . Review of world history . Believing that the history of the race could
not be understood if studied in isolation, I began a slow and deliberately
t.ntrushed review of European history, ancient and modern, and the
history of the Arabs and Islamic people . I say "review" because by 1950
I had already studied and taught in the three fields of American,
European and Arabic history-a most fortunate circumstances for the
task ahead .
2 . Began the formal study of Africa in Europe . I did not know how
very wise this was when the decision was made . For I did not then know
that Europe and Asia had been hauling out of Africa, over the centuries,
just about all of the historical materials I needed to see and study at the
very outset . Certainly, I knew from reading all about the "rape of
Africa," but to know the scale on which this was done one must see at
least some of it in Europe with his own eyes, and be amazed . The
museums in various cities of the European colonial powers are the
repositories of much of African history .
3 . Documentary sources . These are available in both Europe and
America . Reports of Colonial Administrators in Africa, parliamentary
debates, reports and letters from geographers, explorers, captains of
slave ships, and, especially rewarding, the reports and letters from
missionaries to their respective societies' home offices . For the earliest
records on ancient Africa in Europe, Greek and Roman sources were
the most useful (see Bibliographical Notes) . 4 . Field Studies . The field studies covered two years of work in
Africa . Armed with a solid background in written documentaries, the
primary concern then turned to oral history and the developing methods
of historical criticism applicable to it . (Several chapters would be
required just to detail the methods and procedures in this relatively new
and rewarding field of oral tradition .) Every region of Black Africa was
covered : 26 nations in East, West, Central and Southern Africa, and 105
language groups .
The Preview
We began in the lands bordering the Mediterranean on the north
and extending southward on both sides of the Nile below the 10th
parallel, thus including Axum and neighboring kingdoms . This vast
territory was the ancient Ethiopian empire, a federation of autonomous
and semi-autonomous kingdoms . The study began here, importantly,
because this was the heartland of the African race where evidence of
that first black civilization is still to be found despite all centuries of
efforts to destroy it .
From the researcher's viewpoint the most important part of the
investigation was the beginning of the task of singling out and clearly
setting forth the precise nature of Africa's own independently
developed civilization . A continent-wide study of the traditional
customary laws of the Blacks, for example, enabled us to learn, for the
first time, that a single constitutional system prevailed throughout all
Black Africa, just as though the whole race, regardless of the countless
patterns, lived under a single government . A similar continent-wide
study of African social and economic systems through the milleniums
reveal the same overall pattern of unity and sameness of all fundamental
institutions . That there is a historical and fundamental basis for real
brotherhood and unity of the black race could not have escaped the
notice of all of those Europeans who have been investigating and
writing about Africa over the years . But they are shrewd . Massive black
unity would be massive black power which, of course, would reduce
white power and its domination of the earth . So white "Africanist"
writers always concentrate on the "ethnic differences" among Africans,
the tribal antagonisms, the "hopeless" language barriers, the cultural
varieties, etc . They even make a separate "ethnic" group of their own
mulatto offsprings from black women by classifying them as "white" in
some areas and "coloureds" in others . Hence, a system of thought and
practices was developed and superimposed on an already divided race
to keep it permanently divided . No one can deny that in this effort, too,
the whites have been most successful .
We have presented in Chapter VI enough of the traditional African
Constitution and the Fundamental Rights of the African People to serve
as specific beginning points for the identity and the discovery of the
heritage we talk about without any definite frame of reference .
Chapter VII views the long drawn-out migrations as continent-wide
movements that help to explain many of the most important factors in
2 2
The Destruction of Black Civilization
the destruction of black civilization . For the migrations help to answer
the question : What happened to the African people? Or, what caused
them to descend from the highest place to the lowest among the people
of the world?
Even though the work was radically abridged, an innovation in
historical research was introduced by going beyond all questions of
doubt, the principal viewpoints of the work . This was the case-study
method by which a representative number of states from every region
of the continent was studied-North, East, West, Central and Southern
Africa .
In the "View from the Bridge" and in the final chapters, I make a
more definite break from the "old line" of historians . To be objective
and more scientific, this school insists, the research scholar should do no
more than present the comprehensive and fully documented results of
his investigations . There should be no "subjective" commentaries, no
editorializing . One should just present the factual data and leave
interpretation and evaluation to the reader .
This may not only be the correct viewpoint, but it is even beautiful for
historians who represent the already arrived people who control the
world . They can well afford the luxury of historical knowledge for
knowledge's sake-the great satisfaction that comes from just knowing
how things came to be .
But the black historican, member of a race under perpetual seige and
fighting an almost invisible war for survival, dare not follow in these
footsteps of the master . Quite the contrary, after faithfully researching
and piecing together the fragmented record of the race's history, the
task of critical analysis and interpretation should begin . What were our
strengths in the past? In what respects were we most vulnerable? Where
did we go wrong? And all this, like the study of history itself, must be
for the express purpose of determining what to do now . In short, the
black historian, if he is to serve his generation, must not hesitate to
declare what he thinks the results of these studies mean . For even when
our history shows us where we have been weak, it is also showing us
how, through our own efforts, we can become strong again .
The relentless searchlights of history were turned on the roles played
by both Islam and Christianity in the subjugation of the Blacks . This
The Preview 23
confused many and outraged those who did not pause to distinguish
evil men who use religion to disguise their real aims . The unthinking
Muslim or Christian would likely believe that his religion is being
attacked rather than those conquerors and enslavers who disgraced it in
covering their drive for wealth and world domination .
Blacks in the United States seem to be more mixed up and confused
over the search for racial identity than anywhere else . Hence, many are
dropping their white western slavemasters' names and adopting, not
African, but their Arab and Berber slavemasters' names! The confusion
will continue, however, as long as the fact that millions of mulattoes in
Arab countries are considered "white" is ignored along with the other
fact that countless unmixed, sun-baked desert-dwelling Arabs are not
only brown but some are very dark in color (all this darkening of the
skin in spite of the ages-old tradition of the thick cloth covering the face
from the scorching sun) . Indeed, not only did mulattoes consider themselves 100 percent Arab, but jet-black Africans, whose forebears were
in Arabia for generations, speak Arabic and call themselves "Arabs,"
just as Black Americans speak English and call themselves "Americans ."
In both cases neither the Black Arab nor Black American thinks he is
"white."' To repeat, then,'Blacks are in Arabia for precisely the same
reasons Blacks are in the United States, South America, and the
Caribbean Islands-through capture and enslavement .
In studying the actual records in the history of the race, therefore, the
role of "white" Arabs must not be obscured either by their Islamic
religion or by the presence of the Africans and Afro-Arabs among them
any more than we should permit white Europeans and white Americans
to use Christianity to cover their drive for power and control over the
lives of other people .
1 . The term "black" was given a rebirth by the black youth revolt . As
reborn, it does not refer to the particular color of any particular person,
but to the attitude of pride and devotion to the race whose homeland
from times immemorial was called "The Land of the Blacks ." Almost
overnight our youngsters made "black" coequal with "white in respectability, and challenged the anti-black Negroes to decide on which side
they stood . This was no problem for many who are light or even nearwhite in complexion, for they themselves were among the first to
proclaim with pride, "call me black!" Those who hate the term but hold
the majority of leadership positions, feel compelled to use it to protect
their leadership roles .
The Destruction of Black Civilization
I arrived in England in the fall of 1953 to begin formal studies at
Oxford University, primarily through the Institute of Colonial Studies
and at Rhodes House (which might be more properly called Africa
House) . In addition to the study of documentary sources on Africa, I
had other objectives : (l) I wanted a more direct, close-up view of the
European mind, its real attitude toward the black world . I sought to
study both (2) the extent to which European wealth and power were
derived directly from Africa and (3) the nature and philosophy of a
European education that was shaping and determining the mentality of
Africans . I was already fully aware of the disastrous effects of the white
American education system on Black Americans who, not having any
other frame of reference, had to adopt the ideologies and viewpoints of
whites in order to survive, even when those viewpoints were against
them. This meant visiting various classrooms in elementary and
secondary schools, teacher-training institutes, and classrooms of lecturers
and professors in a selected number of colleges in the universities .
These were not "look-in-and-leave" visits, but all-day studies at the
schools, remaining throughout the period in the classrooms, and talking
with students, teachers and principals thereafter. In such a study one
learns very quickly that the textbooks and other works describing
education do not tell the same story as the schools in action tell . (4)
Finally I wanted to know, and again from direct study, exactly what
made Oxford probably the greatest university in the world . What were
the specific elements of that greatness? Was great teaching a factor, and,
if so, who were the great teachers and what made them great teachers?
From just the foregoing aims of the study it must be obvious that I was
still examining various aspects of the probable reasons why whites
became the masters of the globe .
In both France and England I found that the system of education
fostered a new kind of aristocracy-an aristocracy of the "educated ."
College graduates constituted new upper classes . The son of a carpenter
or railroad conductor became estranged from his family and former
friends upon receiving his university degree . A case in point was J .L ., a
young Englishman in my College at Oxford (Lincoln) who was one
of my close friends there . He refused to go home during any of the long
vacation breaks because, to quote him, "I can no longer associate with
my family and old friends . I wouldn't know how to talk to them . We
The Preview

have nothing in common now, you know ."
This British (and European) philosophy of education fitted in ideally
with those Africans from the continent and elsewhere who, unlike J .L .,
came to Europe from the privileged class at home. Some of those
studying in England became more British than the British, just as many
from what was French West Africa became more "French" than the
The first tragedy to note about the effects of this class education on
Blacks is that it further reinforced colonialism's policy of perpetual
disunity in Africa and elsewhere . The line dividing these black "upper"
and "middle" classes from the black masses and their basic aspirations is
more rigidly drawn . And this superior class mentality, becoming even
more crystalized since independence, is an almost certain guarantee of
future uprisings on a scale never seen .
The second great tragedy is in the nature of what is called "education .'
It is mainly rote learning, the ability to memorize phrases, concepts and
other required data . Thinking is neither required nor expected . Critical
analysis and evaluation of subject matter are not required . But the
ability to absorb and recall is required . The brilliant scholar, then, is one
who can readily quote authorities and remember well his bibliographical
sources. So we have a generation of black scholars who continue to
amaze students by mouthing the doctrines and viewpoints of their white
teachers-like so many robots without minds of their own .
Yet study under white teachers and professors should be most
rewarding, and it can be if you do not enter white institutions with a
head like an empty pitcher going to a fountain to be filled . I was safe and
richly rewarded during my studies in white universities only because I
happened not to be so naive that I expected the viewpoints of the
conquerors to be the same as those of the conquered on matters relating
to our place in the world .
Elsewhere I have emphasized, by repetition, that some of the most
fruitful sources for study came quite unintentionally from white scholars .
A case in point was at Oxford . The course was "The History of
Colonialism in Africa ." The presence of two or three Blacks in the class,
while obviously uncomfortable to some, was generally ignored . For
African studies were of long standing an integral part of the imperial
system . They were not planned for Africans at all, but for the future
administrators of the Empire in Africa . So Professor Madden -was
pointing out in his lecture how difficult . and even impossible, it was to
The Destruction of Black Civilization
rule Africans in view of their "wild and most primitive system of
democracy ." For just as fast as African kings or chiefs undertook to carry
out British laws (which displeased the people), "the people would
remove them from office," therefore, this "primitive African democracy
had to be destroyed" before the British system of Indirect Rule could be
effective .
The point here is that these sneering remarks by an eminent British
historian revealed to me an entirely new field of research . That lecture
led me into the study of one of the most significant developments in the
entire history of the black race : an ancient system of democracy (existing
before Greece) evolved from a continent-wide constitution that governed
the whole African people as a single race . This all-important finding was
arrived at by comparative studies of African customary laws in every
region of the continent . The Europeans were confronted with a real
social domocracy that existed long before the terms "socialism" and
"democracy" were invented in the west . For Dr . Madden it was "savage"
because the people were the real rulers, in fact, and not merely in
theory .
Insofar as the study of African history is concerned, I regard direct
investigation in the field, in Africa, as of the highest importance . This
field work should be undertaken only after thoroughgoing research in
written and other documentary sources . The study of available written
sources, their evaluation, and the mounting archaeological records
are all the first major phase of African research and, I would say, a
prerequisite for field-work .
The field work was mainly concerned with oral history . I had noted in
my study of sources of noted historians that many who decried oral
tradition as "unreliable" never failed to use it themselves to supplement
or give added validity to their work . The fact is that neither written nor
unwritten records should be accepted as true without verification .
Although two years were devoted to the field work, the ground
covered was possible only because of careful advance planning and the
scheduling of areas and groups in each country months ahead of my
arrival . These had to be in the hinterland, or "Bush Country," generally
far away from the Westernized urban centers . For our quest was not for
the long-standing tradition of either Islam or Christianity in Africa, but
The Preview 27
for the more ancient tradition of Africa itself . So vast and untapped is
the real history of the African race that I, myself, have only scratched the
surface of what is yet to be done . Some of the areas to be explored by
future historians are set forth in pages which follow this chapter . A
major research project should not be undertaken by a single individual .
That was my mistake-hence, the sixteen years of work that a research
team of eight or ten persons might have completed in three or four .
The kind of well-organized research teams required for in-depth studies
may be difficult to promote because of our pitiful go-it-alone individualism. A research project such as mine should have had a team of highly
trained experts from the fields of history, archaeology, anthropology,
medicine, linguistics, tropical agriculture, political science, etc .
The widely ranging scope of the study minus a team was possible only
because of the interest and active support of certain African governments
and the unforgettable help of the people in every region and country .
For all kinds of help was needed . As indicated above, much had been
pre-arranged . The United States Department of State had notified the
American embassy in each country that I was coming, requesting our
ambassadors to give any requested assistance . Excepting the Sudan,
where embassy officials appeared to be under some kind of fear, the
embassies, everywhere, went all out to be helpful . The embassies had
the very important work of making the advance arrangements for trips
into the interior through the appropriate ministries in each country .
These in turn, had to contact the various provincial governors or
district commissioners who had to make living and conference arrangements with village chiefs, elders, the keepers of oral traditions and other
specified groups . The amount of time all this advance work saved for
the study itself is obvious .
But volunteer work of our African brothers who accompanied me
into the field was what I referred to above as "unforgettable ." Some of
them were teachers who, as in the case of my previous field work (1956-
57), had secured leave for the purpose without any trouble at all .
Indeed, even the people we call "illiterate" had that storehouse of
wisdom which made it easy for them to understand that I was working
not for myself, but, for them, for the whole black race .
I am trying to make it clear here that, although I did not have the kind
of research team referred to above, many people, some 128 in number,
participated in this work and made the outcome possible . So, when at
various places I say "we," it is not the editorial or royal "we," but
2 8

The Destruction of Black Civilization
reference to all the individuals and groups that actually worked on
various parts of the study. However, I had to decline the services of
many highly recommended Africans because of their "upper class"
attitudes toward the common people . For I had learned quite early that
the people in the interior can spot the arrogant and "superior" African
just as easily as they recognize the arrogant and "superior" white
investigator . They will give answers to questions readily enough, but
not the right anwers . I therefore selected only those whose heartbeats
seemed to be tuned to the heartbeats of the great common people from
whom all of us came .
The interpreters were generally assistants who spoke two or three
languages of the country . An entirely new kind of assistant was the
verifying interpreter . They were used to double-check the interpreters
who sometimes would not precisely convey your question or interpret
the exact reply . There were training sessions before and during the field
work. In those fortunate cases where we had four or five competent
assistants, one of the interpreters remained with me, while the others
worked on special assignments in different places in the area .
The documentary research in the United States which preceded the
other preliminaries was not done entirely alone . Some of the most
important areas of my study of ancient sources were rechecked in
independent studies by a select group of graduate students in history .
Their assistance in reappraising such early sources as Manetho,
Herodotus, Josephus, Strabo, Abu Salih, et . al ., was invaluable . Foremost
among these was the Reverend Carleton J . Hayden .
In concluding my remarks on the field studies in Africa, some
comments of four of the countries visited are in order . In the Sudan the
authorities did not want me to work in or even visit the all-black
southern provinces . Their fifteen years of rebellion against the "Arab"
North had caused the whole vast area to be officially "sensitive," and,
therefore, barred to outsiders . The suggestion was that 1 confine my
studies to the Northern Sudan . This I refused because I had been
previously assured that the rebellion had been "completely crushed,"
and that "peace and quiet" prevailed everywhere . Besides, I could only
find Islamic institutions in the North-institutions of which I already
had full knowledge from years of special study and teaching . As
indicated above, the American embassy in Khartoum did none of the
preparatory work about which I give the other U .S . African
embassies so much praise, although it had six months' notice before my
The Preview
. And they maintained a strictly hands-off policy after my arrival .
I, therefore, prepared to leave at once, but announced that I did not beg
to study anywhere, and that the would would learn that this was the
only "African state" where an African scholar was barred . The Ministry
of the Interior reacted swiftly . Not only was permission quickly granted
to do field work in the South, but all the necessary arrangements were
made with dispatch . This included establishing my southern headquarters at Malakal . The simple fact was that while they were quite
familiar with European research people roaming freely all over the
country, a Black doing field studies in the Sudan was a phenomenon
Ethiopia (the new name for Abyssinia), like the Republic of the
Sudan, is also ruled by a people of mixed blood who not only do not
consider themselves African by race, but who maintain a privileged
class society based upon color . To them, all black-skinned Africans are
"Bantu ." To these they feel superior by reason of "white blood," and
their discriminatory practices are just as subtle and real as those of the
whites. And although the enslavement of black-skinned Africans
continues in both countries even in our times, both the Sudan and the
new Ethiopia have adopted the "Brotherhood Front" since the sudden
rise of so many independent African states . This enables the Sudan to
serve as the "bridge" between the Arab world and the new black states,
and thus control or influence their international policies through the
United Nations ; and Ethiopia is able to control, more directly, or
influence Black Africa through Western backing in establishing the
headquarters of the Organization of African Unity in Addis Ababa and
pushing Haile Selassie into the key role . of continent-wide leadership,
thus blocking the "dangerous" influence of Kwame Nkrumah . (It is
because of my steadfast refusal to either skip or gloss over these aspects
of the historical record that I am criticized by many "Negroes"-and I
know exactly when to use this term!)
And now southward to the full white-ruled lands where hostility to a
black face was fully expected : Rhodesia and South Africa . Long before
reaching Southern Africa I was told that I might as well skip Rhodesia,
and that even if I was admitted into South Africa I would not be
permitted to work . But Rhodesia, to the surprise of just about everyone,
pulled out all stops as though it had resolved to outmatch all the black
states in amenities and various kinds of assistance beyond all expectations
or needs . There was the usual press conference, followed by front page
3 0

The Lstruction of Black Civilization
headline coverage of my mission . The (her surprise was an invitation
for TV and radio broadcasts to the natin . Our Zimbabwe friends were
somewhat suspicious of the motives behid all this red carpet treatment
for a Black American, especially when itontinued after my uncompromising replies to questions on a TV )roadcast panel session . The
Ministry of the Interior had an interpret flown 300 miles to join me
when I visited his particular language roup, the Ndebele . The only
objectionable incidents occurred whenon two different occasions in
different places, two district officers offend to attend my meetings with
Chiefs and the Council of Elders . I objecid, and the matter was closed .
Finally, South Africa . The situation i this country is so ridiculous
that, far from allowing myself to be icensed with rage, I found it
amusing . The unremitting brutality of tese whites against the Blacks
leaves them in a state of permanent feaiThey seem to consider every
black man not a potential, but an actul threat . And what they are
occupied with every hour is unbelievablc(ntil you are actually in South
Africa . My passport was a "mistake madeomewhere ." I, of course, had
no intention to do field work in South Alca, but had to pass through it
to reach the surrounded countries then uder British rule . No one at all
was supposed to be barred from passagito and from these countries .
But it required the action of the U .S . Aibassador at Pretoria and an
angry American Consul General at Johanesburg to free me from the
airport room where I was held and che(ed on every thirty minutes .
Even when the Consul General arrivd in person, the authorities
insisted that I must not enter the city, bube taken under guard to the
train for Swaziland . Mr . Riley (the C .G .then decided to defy South
Africa by not only driving me leisurely tlough Johannesburg, but 200
miles around the country, stopping at dif rent towns, and finally on to
Swaziland . What I referred to above as aiusing were incidents such as
excited policemen rushing to flag down ie big Cadillac because they
could so quickly spot a black face before tey saw the seal of the United
States emblazoned on the sides of the ar with the American flag
flying from the hood .
An African is a member of the black rac, and from times immemorial
he was known as such by all peoples of thevorld . Throughout this work
the term refers to Blacks only . It should bmoted also that I write about
the African people-not African peoplesas Western writers do . I am
dealing here with essentially one people, ne "race," if you please, the
African race . In ancient times "African"and "Ethiopian" meant the
The Preview
same thing : A Black . This, of course, was before the Caucasians began
to reorder the earth to suit themselves and found it necessary to stake
their birthright over the Land of the Blacks also . In line with this, some
Western historians have recently wondered where the Africans came
The reasons given for beginning formal studies of Africa at Oxford
implied much more than was stated . Reference was made to studying
the "Caucasian mind," for therein may be found many clues that lead to
a better understanding of the history of Blacks and how the systematic
blackout of significant portions of that history occurred .
That is why I urge those students who intend to accept the great
challenge of basic research in this discipline to go into "enemy territory,"
linger there, study and critically analyze their lectures and their
"scholarly" writings, for they are some of the most rewarding sources for
African history, precisely because in shrewdly attempting to delete,
disguise or belittle the role of Blacks in world history, they often reveal
the opposite of what was intended . They are fruitful sources of unconscious evidence, supplying the very evidence they thought to suppress
or recording facts the significance of which they were totally ignorant . A
fairly good example is the written account of a European explorer in
East Africa . He was outraged because he and his party had to wait two
weeks to present a request to explore the country to the African king .
The black autocrat, the account went on, had the presumption to keep
white men waiting (italics mine) in order to show his people how high
and mighty he was . The whites were denied even a brief audience,
while the king would quickly receive any Black that wandered in from
the countryside . Now the explorer, without knowing it, was actually
reporting how African democracy worked, and how it had been working
before there was an Athens or Greece (where Westerners think
democracy was born) . The explorer would have been surprised to know
that (1) "king" in Africa meant something entirely different from what it
meant in Europe and Asia ; (2) that this black king, far from "putting on
airs," did not have the right to receive them, even socially, without the
presence of at least three senior Elders ; (3) that to consider a petition to
conduct explorations in the country, the full Council of State had to be
called, and that this could not be done by the king without the advice of
the First Minister (who happened to be on tour when the explorers
arrived to the capital) ; (4) and that the "old Blacks" they saw "wandering
in from the countryside" and immediately given audience, were the

The Destruction of Black Civilization
councillors who had been summoned-some from distant provinces-to
pass on their request to explore . They were the direct representatives of
the people . The voice of the king was in fact the voice of the people,
without which he could not act on any matter of importance, or even
talk alone with strangers . It should be clear, therefore, that our guidelines
for research must lead to a critical analysis of all sources, whether
original, secondary or oral . In particular, we should seek out those works
with the special mission to "prove" the superiority of "whites" by
"proving" the inferiority of Blacks-all in language so subtle, scholarly
and scientific, that to the uncritical mind their "truths" seem selfevident . But it is also noteworthy that while the most hostile racist
writers usually prove the very opposite of what they intended, their
works inevitably contain useful factual data that must be accepted .
Indeed, it is doubtful whether anyone, even a devil, could write a book
completely devoid of truth .
Research in African history is more tedious, laborious, and time-consuming than that in other unsuppressed fields . For in developing the
"underdeveloped" history of the Blacks, one has to explore the most
unlikely sources for a fragment here and a fragment there, and in works
in no way concerned with African history, and, just as often, without
any kind of history . Sometimes it is a paragraph or two in an explorer's
account; at other times significant items may be found in the numerous
missionary reports to the home office, explaining the mission's tasks, but
also the native institutions to be overcome . All of these may be valuable
and most valid sources precisely because they were not intended to be
such at all . The writers were detailing bigger European interests . Any
references to Africans were merely incidental to larger purposes . Just
piecing all these fragments together could be a research field by itself .
In my work in European and American history, I ran into no such
problems and the research tasks were easier . In Egyptian history, to give
a final example of Caucasian roadblocks to be overcome, one has the
extra, time-consuming job of identifying the numerous Black giants of
history who have been classified and effectively disguised as Caucasians
over the centuries . First of all . one must know the various names that
referred exclusively to Blacks and by which they were known throughout
the ancient world . For in addition to the more widely used "African"
and "Ethiopian," they were also known as Thebans, Libyans, Thinites,
Nubians, Cushites, Memphites, Numidians, etc . Even before white
Asians gained the ascendency in any of these areas, their very presence
in relatively small numbers was sufficient to identify them as the leaders
and achievers of whatever attracted the attention of the world .
Another trick-the very opposite of the American law and practicewas to classify Africans with "Caucasian blood" as Caucasians . If any of
those so classified turned out to be notorious characters, pro-African or
anti-white, they were loudly proclaimed and contemptuously called
"half-breeds ."
The millions of early Blacks who were forced either by circumstances
or expediency to replace their own names with Asian and European
names only added to the problems of historical identification .
Far from becoming baffled and discouraged by the more painstaking
basic research required, the student of African history must accept the
challenge as a twentieth century mandate that is essential to the salvation of the race in the most literal sense . They will need the active
support of black governments and predominantly black institutions of
learning . These should be actively sponsoring (1) comprehensive, basic
research programs ; (2) research teams for field studies, especially in
history and archaeology ; and (3) a thorough-going teacher-training
program for history and other related disciplines .
What, indeed, are black institutions of learning waiting for? The
young people to show the way? The simple truth is that what is needed
first is active pioneering initiative . Financial assistance would then be
forthcoming even from unexpected sources . Black inertia is the main
problem . there is still too much dependence on white scholars to do our
work for us . I have written elsewhere that as long as we rely on white
historians to write black history for us, we should keep silent about what
they produce . They write form the Caucasian viewpoint, and we are
naive, indeed, if we expect them to do otherwise, all the ballyhoo about
their "scientific objectivity" to the contrary, notwithstanding .
Over the years of studying African history, certain propositions and
theories evolved quite naturally as guiding headlights in the explorations .
A few of them are set forth here, some previously stated or implied :
1 . That Africa, all Africa, is the native homeland of the Blacks,' and
that the Asiatic peoples who occupy North and Eastern Africa, even
though they may have been there for centuries, are no more native
Africans than are the Dutch and British who likewise occupy and
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'he Destruction of Black Civilization
control the southern regions of th continent . The question of where
the homelands are from which ll of these invaders came is not
2 . Blacks were among the very erliest builders of a great civilization
on this planet, including the devlopment of writing, sciences, engineering, medicine., architecture, rel ;ion and the fine arts .
3 . The story of how such an advaced civilization was lost is one of the
greatest and most tragic in the hisory of mankind and should be the
main focus of research studies in Aican history .
4 . Asian imperialism, though rarly ever mentioned, was, and still is
even more devastating for the Africn people than that of either Europe
or America . The Arabs' white supeiority complex is not one whit less
than that of Europe or America, althugh their strategy of "brotherhood"
deceives naive Blacks .
5 The forces behind the continuos splintering of small groups and
even the breaking up of kingdors and empires, followed by the
equally endless migrations, includedhe steadily increasing death of the
soil and the advance of the deserts,the drying up of lakes and rivers,
along with the attending change of he climate and the always certain
internal strife-all combined with ivasions and famine to become a
way of life .
6 . The strength and greatness of th African people can be measured
by how, in the face of what at timeseemed to be all the forces of hell,
they fought through it all to survive ad rebuild kingdoms and empires,
some of which endured a thousand gars .
7 . Within the framework of eventhe smallest surviving states, the
basic principles of the traditional Afcan constitution were adhered to
and kept alive throughout all the paving centuries as the fundamental .
elements of ancient democratic, socil, political and economic systems
all over the continent .
8 . Africa was the cradle of a relig)us civilization based on the conception of one Supreme God, Creaor of the Universe . This belief in
one Supreme Being ante-dated thaiof the Jews by several thousand
years before Abraham, and the rol4of the numerous sub-deities on
2 . An important fact that should b well known is that all unmixed
Africans are not jet black . For whe the great majority are black
skinned, countless thousands who livd for centuries in cool areas have
lighter complexion-and no "Caucasia blood" at all .
whom Western writers dwell, was exactly the same as that of patron
saints in the Christian world
. I advance further the theory that the early
wandering Hebrews, so numerous in Africa, received many of their
religious ideas in Africa, for there it was that Abraham sojourned,
Moses was born, Joseph lived, and some of the early years of Jesus
Christ were spent
. There is no question that even centuries after
mulattoes and Asians emerged as the only Egyptians, they still regarded
Black Africa as the chief source of the spiritual-"The Land of the
Gods" or "The Land of the Spirits ."
9 Notwithstanding the remarkable civilization they developed even
milleniums before Christ, and the amazing rebuilding of empires in
spite of the great dispersions, notwithstanding all of this, African people
fell far behind in the forward march of the rest of mankind because, in
addition to the destructive forces of nature on the continent and the
hostile force from without, they, the African people, further enshackled
themselves with their own hands through certain aspects of their social
institutions and beliefs that stood as roadblocks to progress even where
conditions where favorable .
This work begins where the history of the Blacks began, in Egypt
(Northern Ethiopia) and the Sudan (Southern Ethiopia) . Thus, at the
very outset, I clash head-on with the Caucasian version of African
history . My focus, then, is on the great issues in the history of the Blacks
that emerge from this confrontation with white scholarship ; for while I
have covered much of the same ground explored by scholars before me,
I have generally reached different conclusions than theirs, and from the
same body of facts .
Let us pause for a moment at this point . I have made a blanket indictment of white Western scholarship on Africa . If it cannot be sustained, it
should never have been made . They are brought under fire at various
points throughout this work-the kind of work, as I also had stated,
should be absolutely needless in the closing years of the 20th century .
The case against Western "Africanists" is rather fully set forth in the
work itself, but may be outlined here as follows :
l . First of all, they are not ignorant of the true history of the Blacks,
including their achievements as builders of one of the first great civilizations on this earth (ancient writers say it was the, very first) ; and they, the

The Destruction of Black Civilization
Western scholars, know all about the authentic early and modern
sources. They simply ignore and refuse to publish any facts of African
history that upset or even tend to upset their racial philosophy that rest
so solidly on premises sanctified by time that they no longer need to be
openly proclaimed .
2 . They are, unwittingly, promoting the steady march toward a world
conflict between the races . Yet they are doing what they feel they must
do, in faithful obedience to their Caucasian culture, the racial pattern of
which emerged in the 17th century . The steady conquest and enslavement of a whole people made it imperative to create both a religious
and a "scientific" doctrine to assuage the white conscience . Their
phenomenal success in the industrial world at once supports and
justifies their philosophy, the supremacy of the fittest . The danger now
arises from an entirely new and unexpected development: A sleeping
and submissive non-white world, while all this white power was being
amassed, is no longer either sleeping or submissive .
3 . Even the African revolt against colonialism and the world-wide
challenge to white domination of the entire earth, even these signals of
change do not disturb these scholars of imperialism . They represent the
Lords of the Earth, controlling all levels of education, science and
research . They control the education of Blacks throughout the world .
Therefore, they see no need, even in the 1980s, to take a new look at the
history of Blacks from its beginning and start the work of restoring the
pages they had either deleted or ignored .
They are doing the very opposite . Their histories and other
"scientific" studies of the Blacks are presented just as they have been for
three hundred years . With the rise and spread of independent African
states and the Black Revolution in the United States, these scholarly
representatives of white supremacy quickly reformed their techniques
of mind control . They set up in Europe and America highly financed
African studies associations, societies, institutes, history journals and
"African" periodicals of various kinds, all under complete white control
and direction . Their African studies programs were pushed in the
colleges and universities far ahead of the general demand by black
youth for black studies . As the latter demands developed, black youth
discovered that white professors not only bad the field occupied, but
were still teaching their traditional viewpoint on "race ."
In the continuing crusade to control the minds of Blacks through the
nature of their education, American and British scholars lead . They are
as ruthless and aggressive in their scholarly pursuits on races as their copartners in seizing and controlling the wealth and peoples of other
lands . Having established strong national and international "African"
associations and journals that attempt to control research activities on
Africa, they proceeded to flood the world with hastily thrown together
African "histories," pamphlets, and publications on just about every
subject that could stand a "Black" title .
4. From their all-powerful "position of strength" they continue to
arrange and rearrange the world as it pleases them, naming and
classifying people, places and things as they will . In the United States,
whites known to have any amount of "Negro blood," no matter how
small, are classified as Negroes ; in Africa, North Africa in particular,
they do the very opposite . Blacks with any amount of "Caucasian
blood" are classified as "white ." This scheme was rigorously applied in
the history of Egypt, for example, where even unmixed black pharaohs
became "white" and the original black population was never referred
to as Egyptian at all! The black kings who founded and 'ruled from the
First Dynasty are disguised as such, while the Saite kings (white) of the
small areas of Lower Egypt are presented as the Pharaohs of all Egypt
even when African pharaohs were on the throne of Upper Egypt .
Blotting the Blacks out of history included replacing African names of
persons, place and things with Arabic and European names. One wave
of the masters' magic wand, and Black Hamites and even Cushites, like
their early Egyptian brothers, are no longer Africans!
5 .7heir periodization of African history is carefully arranged in such a
way that the history becomes the history of Arabs and Europeans in
Africa, and not the history of Africans . In African History, a recent
publication of the American Historical Association as a guide to teaching,
their purpose becomes clear in the arrangement itself: First period .is
from the fall of the Roman Empire to 700 (A .D .), the Arab invasions ;
the second period of African history is the period of "Islamic" civilization, 700 (A.D .) to the coming of the Europeans in 1500 ; the European
Period from 1500 to 1960 is subdivided at 1880 to mark the period
colonialism . There is no period of Black civilization in Black Africa . Such
is the Caucasian viewpoint that is almost a religion . Their very first
period eliminates 4,000 years of Black Civilization and the very greatest
periods of African achievements ; their second period is devoted to the
Arabs and Berbers in Africa ; and in their third period the focus is on
European civilization . And it is all done under the heading of Af ican history .
38 The Destruction of Black Civilization
Where it is impossible to deny black achievements, equal to and often
above the whites, such achievements were attributed to some kind of
Caucasian influence, even if imaginary . Yet, the AHA Publication
Number Fifty-six uses the same strategy that makes Western scholarship
so very triumphant . The main thrusts of its racist presuppositions are,
for the unwary, completely hidden by much highly welcomed factual
materials. But what is certain to disarm almost everyone is racism's
forthright attacks on racism throughout the publication . I suppose no
one is expected to notice the implied incapacity of black historians to
deal with African history objectively . They are not referred to as
historians, of course, they are " . . . some modern African intellectuals
who have tried to show great civilizations in the past, grander than
anything that ever existed ."
As a direct result of this continued universal enslavement through
education, black youth are in revolt . That revolt will become increasingly
dangerous as they begin to realize how completely they are blocked
from self-realization in the very institutions that should further it ; how
difficult it is to find suitable textbooks in black history or even "Negro"
teachers who do not limit themselves to the viewpoints of the white
masters who trained them . The frustrations become more intolerable as
the young find themselves between two fires : The white racists who
determine the very nature of their education and the Negro educators
who also see the world through the blue eyes of the Saxons . In short,
they are forced to turn to their own devices because they find so many
of their own race, who should be working with them, in the camps of
the "enemy ."
Insofar as periodization is concerned, no one should be so naive as to
expect a proper division of African history while the field is almost
completely preempted by the enemies of that history . A proper division
would tend to encourage a more all-inclusive research and a less biased
interpretation of the results . Neither will happen until a new generation
of black research scholars and historians take to the field, becoming the
foremost authorities in their own right-black historians, not a single
one of whom will fall in Professor Phillip D . Curtin's category of black
intellectuals who try to "show great civilizations in the past, grander
than anything that ever existed ." The new research efforts call for black
experts not only in the field of history but also in the allied fields from
which African history must heavily draw : archaeology, anthropology,
linguistics, etc .
The first period would begin with "prehistory," primarily because
Nowe, one of the oldest cities on earth, was begun by Blacks before
recorded history . Another important reason is that the Canaanites and
Asians had invaded the Nile Delta and established a stronghold in
Lower Egypt (then Northeastern Ethiopia or Chem) in prehistoric times .
This early concentration of whites along the seacoasts of the Land of the
Blacks is a circumstance of crucial importance in black history"because it
was exactly from this development that the achievements of the Blacks
were overshadowed by later writers or blotted out entirely . The call is
for black specialists for one period in one area . What, for example, was
the actual influence of the white Asians, rigidly held back for centuries
in the lower one-fourth of the country, upon the Blacks who held th

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