Welcome, Guest: Join Kenyans247 Log In!

Stats: 299 Members, 16,339 topics and 65 posts Date:  Tuesday 26 January 2021 at 09:33 AM
Popular & Trending NewestFeatured Links ClassifiedDirectoryLivescoresLive Kenyan TVLive Kenyan Radio Follow Us Like Us

About Us Terms & Conditions Privacy Policy FAQ's Disclaimer Copyright Contact Us Advertise With Us Download K247 APP Marketplace Moderator Policy We Are Hiring Kenya Radio and TV Stations Listen and Watch Live Letter From the C.E.O Kenya Radio Stations Live Kenya TV Stations Live Kenya - Newspapers and News Sites and popular blog Forum Rules


Kenyans247 / Kenyans247 / General / Africa / THE DESTRUCTION OF BLACK CIVILIZATION GREAT ISSUES OF A RACE FROM 4500 thread

605 people viewed

Top Construction Companies In Kenya What Is The Language Of Instructions In Most Of Schools In Kenya Loans For Construction Or Purchase Of Houses Under Civil Servants Housing Scheme How To Obtain A Construction /building Permit In Kenya
(1) (2) (Last Page) | (1 of 3 pages) (Go Down) (» Reply topic)
THE DESTRUCTION OF BLACK CIVILIZATION GREAT ISSUES OF A RACE FROM 4500 thread by Kenyans247(1): Thu 16, July, 2020 01:08am
"A Foundation and new approach to the history of our race . . . It was
pioneering research into unexplored areas . This book is not only
urgently needed now, but it will be read by future generations ."
-John Hendrick Clarke, President
African Heritage Association
"This book should be the basis for all the so-called Black Studies
programs . This is the basic text, necessary for Afrikan mental development
in the last part of the 20th century ."
- Imamu Amiri Baraka, Chairman
The Congress of African People
"Williams' directness, forcefulness, and the partial warmth of an
insider whose own destiny and that of his people is at stake has strong
impact. . . . The Destruction of Black Civilization is a balanced
appraisal of an ancient and contemporary African history
-The Black World
"From a well documented chapter on Egyptian civilization, Chancellor
Williams moves on through material that deals with the impact of
Judaism and Christianity on the African migrations . . . .His claim that
Islam helped the slavery of Black Africa is untrue because he used white
text rather than accounts of non-whites academia and the truth ."
-Muhammad Speaks
"This book is a contribution to the understanding of Black civilization
and the way of life of African people . For once here is documentation
put forth by a Black scholar . More books of this kind are needed ."
-Wiley Smith III, Associate Director
Institute of African-American
Affairs, Kent State University
. .It is a comprehensive analysis of our past and a most perceptive
and relevant analysis of our present condition as a people .
-Andrew J. Billingsley,
Vice President for Academic
Affairs, Howard University
"Chancellor Williams comes to us at a time when his message, if
interpreted correctly, can help us to understand Why We Losewhy the Black African man rests firmly on the bottom of Africa and
everywhere else the African and his descendants reside . His book needs
little analysis . It needs to be read . His message is sharp and clear for
everyone to see . . . . He says that the central problem of 30 million Black
Americans in the United States is unity-that we must unite or perish ."
-The Afrocentric World Review

Copyright © 1974, 1987 by Chancellor Williams
All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in
retrieval systems or transmitted in any form, by any
means, including mechanical, electronic, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise without prior written permission
of the publisher.
Published by Third World Press, P .O. Box 19730,
Chicago, IL 60619 .

- -
,/ 0-88378-042-9 (cloth)
Cover Illustration by Murry DePi
Manufactured in the United State
93 94 95 96 97 98 99

To the Black youth of the Nineteen Sixties for Beginning the Second
Great Emancipation-the Liberation of Our Minds and thus Changing
the Course of History

While this book is still a summary of more detailed research, it seemed
necessary to amplify certain questions and the answers to them . The
widespread interest in and study of the book is deeply appreciated and
rewarding to the author, and the letters from the prisons have been
most touching and revealing .
As noted elsewhere, I am keenly aware of many repetitions throughout
the work, unavoidable because of comparative methods used, and
others for emphasis-which may have turned out to seem overemphasis.

0 Shares 0 Like •

and field studies which were intended for a 2-volume history of the
African people . The writing plan for the two volumes would have
required at least another five years, even if the serious impairment of
my vision had not occurred . In the meantime there had developed an
urgent need for the results of my research which concentrated on crucial
areas in the history of the Blacks that had been either unknown, known
and misinterpreted, or known but deliberately ignored . My own history
classes were only a part of the rebellion against the only kind of textbooks available . It was a general rebellion against the subtle message
from even the most "liberal" white authors (and their Negro disciples) :
"You belong to a race of nobodies . You have no worthwhile history to
point to with pride ."
The Destruction of Black Civilization, therefore, could not wait
another five years just to be more detailed, impressive, or massive in
scope, for a reinterpretation of the history of the African race could be
compressed into a small work for background reading, and so written
that black John Doe, cab driver or laborer, and Jane Doe, housemaid or
waitress, as well as college students and professors, could read and
understand the message from their forefathers and foremothers .



In a small town surrounded by cotton fields in South Carolina, a little
black boy in the fifth grade began to harass teachers, preachers, parents
and grandparents with questions which none seemed able to answer :
How is it that white folks have everything and we have nothing?
Slavery-how and why did we become their slaves in the first place?
White children go to fine brick, stone and marble schools nine months a
year while we go to a ramshackle old barn-like building only five-and-ahalf months, then to the cotton fields . Why?
In the sixth grade one of our teachers, Miss Alice Crossland, helped
me to become a sales agent for the Crisis and the Norfolk Journal and
Guide . This was like turning on the floodlights of heaven ; for the books
on our race, listed on the back pages of the Crisis, started me off on their
never-ending search, raising more questions as I progressed through
school, questions whose answers were even more perplexing . For,
having read everything about the African race that I could get my hands
on, I knew even before leaving high school that (1) The Land of the
Blacks was not only the "cradle of civilization" itself but that the Blacks
were once the leading people on earth ; (2) that Egypt once was not only
all-black, but the very name "Egypt" was derived from the Blacks ; (3)
and that the Blacks were the pioneers in the sciences, medicine, architecture, writing, and were the first builders in stone, etc .
The big unanswered question, then, was what had happened? How
was this highly advanced Black Civilization so completely destroyed that
its people, in our times and for some centuries past, have found
themselves not only behind the other peoples of the world, but as well,
the color of their skin a sign of inferiority, bad luck, and the badge of the
slave whether bond or free? And, since I had learned that whites were
once enslaved as generally as any other race, how did it come about that
slavery was finally concentrated in Africa on Blacks only? In short, no
books or other studies in high school and college answered or gave clues
to answers to the problems that puzzled me the most . For no matter
what the factual data were, all the books written about Blacks by their
conquerors reflected the conquerors viewpoints . Nothing else should
have been expected . And, considering how thorough-going was the
capture of the minds of the Blacks, it is really not surprising that so many
Negro scholars still faithfully follow in the footsteps of their white
masters .
The Preview
I was convinced that what troubled me and what I wanted to know,
was what troubled the black masses and what they wanted to know . We
wanted to know the whole truth, good and bad . For it would be a continuing degradation of the African people if we simply destroyed the
present system of racial lies embedded in world literature only to
replace it with glorified fiction based more on wishful thinking than on
the labors of historical research .
My inquiry, therefore, was concerned with Black Civilization alonewhat the Blacks themselves achieved independently of either Europe or
Asia . This was an entirely new approach to the study of the history of
the Blacks . It meant, first of all, segregating traditional African institutions
from those later influenced by Islamic Asia and Christian Europe . In
this way, and in no other, we can determine what our heritage really was
and, instead of just talking about "identity," we shall know at last
precisely what purely African body of principles, value systems or
philosophy of life gradually evolved from our own forefathers over
countless ages, and we will be able to develop an African ideology to
guide us onward . In other words, there can be no real identity with our
heritage until we know what our heritage really is . It is all hidden in our
history, but we are ignorant of that history . We have been floating
alone, basking blissfully in the sunny heritage of other peoples!
My research was a quest for some specific answers to very, specific
questions . Some of these were : (1) How did all-black Egypt become allwhite Egypt? (Note at this point that mulattoes were classified as white
in Egypt, all North Africa, and the Middle East-a fact that still confuses
Blacks in the United States where the very opposite policy was adopted .)
(2) What were some of the specific details in the process that so
completely blotted out the achievements of the African race from the
annals of history-just how could this he done on such a universal scale?
(3) How and under what circumstances did Africans, among the very
first people to invent writing, lose this art almost completely? (4) Is there
a single African race, one African people? (5) if we are one race or one
people, how do you explain the numerous languages, cultural varieties
and tribal groupings? (6) Since, as it seemed to me there is far more
disunity, self-hatred and mutual antagonisms among Blacks than any
other people, is there a historical explanation for this? (7) And how, in
puzzling contrast, is the undying love of Blacks for their Europeans and
Asian conquerors and enslavers explained?

The Destruction of Black Civilization
These questions, along with those stated earlier, constituted the core
problems for sixteen years of study . And while the outcome did not
eventuate in the more detailed work as planned, I think I succeeded in
summarizing the most significant highlights of my findings in the
chapters which follow this Preview



In a small town surrounded by cotton fields in South Carolina, a little
black boy in the fifth grade began to harass teachers, preachers, parents
and grandparents with questions which none seemed able to answer :
How is it that white folks have everything and we have nothing?
Slavery-how and why did we become their slaves in the first place?
White children go to fine brick, stone and marble schools nine months a
year while we go to a ramshackle old barn-like building only five-and-ahalf months, then to the cotton fields . Why?
In the sixth grade one of our teachers, Miss Alice Crossland, helped
me to become a sales agent for the Crisis and the Norfolk Journal and
Guide . This was like turning on the floodlights of heaven ; for the books
on our race, listed on the back pages of the Crisis, started me off on their
never-ending search, raising more questions as I progressed through
school, questions whose answers were even more perplexing . For,
having read everything about the African race that I could get my hands
on, I knew even before leaving high school that (1) The Land of the
Blacks was not only the "cradle of civilization" itself but that the Blacks
were once the leading people on earth ; (2) that Egypt once was not only
all-black, but the very name "Egypt" was derived from the Blacks ; (3)
and that the Blacks were the pioneers in the sciences, medicine, architecture, writing, and were the first builders in stone, etc .
The big unanswered question, then, was what had happened? How
was this highly advanced Black Civilization so completely destroyed that
its people, in our times and for some centuries past, have found
themselves not only behind the other peoples of the world, but as well,
the color of their skin a sign of inferiority, bad luck, and the badge of the
slave whether bond or free? And, since I had learned that whites were
once enslaved as generally as any other race, how did it come about that
slavery was finally concentrated in Africa on Blacks only? In short, no
books or other studies in high school and college answered or gave clues
to answers to the problems that puzzled me the most . For no matter
what the factual data were, all the books written about Blacks by their
conquerors reflected the conquerors viewpoints . Nothing else should
have been expected . And, considering how thorough-going was the
capture of the minds of the Blacks, it is really not surprising that so many
Negro scholars still faithfully follow in the footsteps of their white
masters .
The Preview
I was convinced that what troubled me and what I wanted to know,
was what troubled the black masses and what they wanted to know . We
wanted to know the whole truth, good and bad . For it would be a continuing degradation of the African people if we simply destroyed the
present system of racial lies embedded in world literature only to
replace it with glorified fiction based more on wishful thinking than on
the labors of historical research .
My inquiry, therefore, was concerned with Black Civilization alonewhat the Blacks themselves achieved independently of either Europe or
Asia . This was an entirely new approach to the study of the history of
the Blacks . It meant, first of all, segregating traditional African institutions
from those later influenced by Islamic Asia and Christian Europe . In
this way, and in no other, we can determine what our heritage really was
and, instead of just talking about "identity," we shall know at last
precisely what purely African body of principles, value systems or
philosophy of life gradually evolved from our own forefathers over
countless ages, and we will be able to develop an African ideology to
guide us onward . In other words, there can be no real identity with our
heritage until we know what our heritage really is . It is all hidden in our
history, but we are ignorant of that history . We have been floating
alone, basking blissfully in the sunny heritage of other peoples!
My research was a quest for some specific answers to very, specific
questions . Some of these were : (1) How did all-black Egypt become allwhite Egypt? (Note at this point that mulattoes were classified as white
in Egypt, all North Africa, and the Middle East-a fact that still confuses
Blacks in the United States where the very opposite policy was adopted .)
(2) What were some of the specific details in the process that so
completely blotted out the achievements of the African race from the
annals of history-just how could this he done on such a universal scale?
(3) How and under what circumstances did Africans, among the very
first people to invent writing, lose this art almost completely? (4) Is there
a single African race, one African people? (5) if we are one race or one
people, how do you explain the numerous languages, cultural varieties
and tribal groupings? (6) Since, as it seemed to me there is far more
disunity, self-hatred and mutual antagonisms among Blacks than any
other people, is there a historical explanation for this? (7) And how, in
puzzling contrast, is the undying love of Blacks for their Europeans and
Asian conquerors and enslavers explained?

The Destruction of Black Civilization
These questions, along with those stated earlier, constituted the core
problems for sixteen years of study . And while the outcome did not
eventuate in the more detailed work as planned, I think I succeeded in
summarizing the most significant highlights of my findings in the
chapters which follow this Preview


I . Review of world history . Believing that the history of the race could
not be understood if studied in isolation, I began a slow and deliberately
t.ntrushed review of European history, ancient and modern, and the
history of the Arabs and Islamic people . I say "review" because by 1950
I had already studied and taught in the three fields of American,
European and Arabic history-a most fortunate circumstances for the
task ahead .
2 . Began the formal study of Africa in Europe . I did not know how
very wise this was when the decision was made . For I did not then know
that Europe and Asia had been hauling out of Africa, over the centuries,
just about all of the historical materials I needed to see and study at the
very outset . Certainly, I knew from reading all about the "rape of
Africa," but to know the scale on which this was done one must see at
least some of it in Europe with his own eyes, and be amazed . The
museums in various cities of the European colonial powers are the
repositories of much of African history .
3 . Documentary sources . These are available in both Europe and
America . Reports of Colonial Administrators in Africa, parliamentary
debates, reports and letters from geographers, explorers, captains of
slave ships, and, especially rewarding, the reports and letters from
missionaries to their respective societies' home offices . For the earliest
records on ancient Africa in Europe, Greek and Roman sources were
the most useful (see Bibliographical Notes) . 4 . Field Studies . The field studies covered two years of work in
Africa . Armed with a solid background in written documentaries, the
primary concern then turned to oral history and the developing methods
of historical criticism applicable to it . (Several chapters would be
required just to detail the methods and procedures in this relatively new
and rewarding field of oral tradition .) Every region of Black Africa was
covered : 26 nations in East, West, Central and Southern Africa, and 105
language groups


We began in the lands bordering the Mediterranean on the north
and extending southward on both sides of the Nile below the 10th
parallel, thus including Axum and neighboring kingdoms . This vast
territory was the ancient Ethiopian empire, a federation of autonomous
and semi-autonomous kingdoms . The study began here, importantly,
because this was the heartland of the African race where evidence of
that first black civilization is still to be found despite all centuries of
efforts to destroy it .
From the researcher's viewpoint the most important part of the
investigation was the beginning of the task of singling out and clearly
setting forth the precise nature of Africa's own independently
developed civilization . A continent-wide study of the traditional
customary laws of the Blacks, for example, enabled us to learn, for the
first time, that a single constitutional system prevailed throughout all
Black Africa, just as though the whole race, regardless of the countless
patterns, lived under a single government . A similar continent-wide
study of African social and economic systems through the milleniums
reveal the same overall pattern of unity and sameness of all fundamental
institutions . That there is a historical and fundamental basis for real
brotherhood and unity of the black race could not have escaped the
notice of all of those Europeans who have been investigating and
writing about Africa over the years . But they are shrewd . Massive black
unity would be massive black power which, of course, would reduce
white power and its domination of the earth . So white "Africanist"
writers always concentrate on the "ethnic differences" among Africans,
the tribal antagonisms, the "hopeless" language barriers, the cultural
varieties, etc . They even make a separate "ethnic" group of their own
mulatto offsprings from black women by classifying them as "white" in
some areas and "coloureds" in others . Hence, a system of thought and
practices was developed and superimposed on an already divided race
to keep it permanently divided . No one can deny that in this effort, too,
the whites have been most successful .
We have presented in Chapter VI enough of the traditional African
Constitution and the Fundamental Rights of the African People to serve
as specific beginning points for the identity and the discovery of the
heritage we talk about without any definite frame of reference .
Chapter VII views the long drawn-out migrations as continent-wide
movements that help to explain many of the most important factors in
2 2
The Destruction of Black Civilization
the destruction of black civilization . For the migrations help to answer
the question : What happened to the African people? Or, what caused
them to descend from the highest place to the lowest among the people
of the world?
Even though the work was radically abridged, an innovation in
historical research was introduced by going beyond all questions of
doubt, the principal viewpoints of the work . This was the case-study
method by which a representative number of states from every region
of the continent was studied-North, East, West, Central and Southern
Africa .
In the "View from the Bridge" and in the final chapters, I make a
more definite break from the "old line" of historians . To be objective
and more scientific, this school insists, the research scholar should do no
more than present the comprehensive and fully documented results of
his investigations . There should be no "subjective" commentaries, no
editorializing . One should just present the factual data and leave
interpretation and evaluation to the reader .
This may not only be the correct viewpoint, but it is even beautiful for
historians who represent the already arrived people who control the
world . They can well afford the luxury of historical knowledge for
knowledge's sake-the great satisfaction that comes from just knowing
how things came to be .
But the black historican, member of a race under perpetual seige and
fighting an almost invisible war for survival, dare not follow in these
footsteps of the master . Quite the contrary, after faithfully researching
and piecing together the fragmented record of the race's history, the
task of critical analysis and interpretation should begin . What were our
strengths in the past? In what respects were we most vulnerable? Where
did we go wrong? And all this, like the study of history itself, must be
for the express purpose of determining what to do now . In short, the
black historian, if he is to serve his generation, must not hesitate to
declare what he thinks the results of these studies mean . For even when
our history shows us where we have been weak, it is also showing us
how, through our own efforts, we can become strong again .


The relentless searchlights of history were turned on the roles played
by both Islam and Christianity in the subjugation of the Blacks . This
The Preview 23
confused many and outraged those who did not pause to distinguish
evil men who use religion to disguise their real aims . The unthinking
Muslim or Christian would likely believe that his religion is being
attacked rather than those conquerors and enslavers who disgraced it in
covering their drive for wealth and world domination .
Blacks in the United States seem to be more mixed up and confused
over the search for racial identity than anywhere else . Hence, many are
dropping their white western slavemasters' names and adopting, not
African, but their Arab and Berber slavemasters' names! The confusion
will continue, however, as long as the fact that millions of mulattoes in
Arab countries are considered "white" is ignored along with the other
fact that countless unmixed, sun-baked desert-dwelling Arabs are not
only brown but some are very dark in color (all this darkening of the
skin in spite of the ages-old tradition of the thick cloth covering the face
from the scorching sun) . Indeed, not only did mulattoes consider themselves 100 percent Arab, but jet-black Africans, whose forebears were
in Arabia for generations, speak Arabic and call themselves "Arabs,"
just as Black Americans speak English and call themselves "Americans ."
In both cases neither the Black Arab nor Black American thinks he is
"white."' To repeat, then,'Blacks are in Arabia for precisely the same
reasons Blacks are in the United States, South America, and the
Caribbean Islands-through capture and enslavement .
In studying the actual records in the history of the race, therefore, the
role of "white" Arabs must not be obscured either by their Islamic
religion or by the presence of the Africans and Afro-Arabs among them
any more than we should permit white Europeans and white Americans
to use Christianity to cover their drive for power and control over the
lives of other people .
1 . The term "black" was given a rebirth by the black youth revolt . As
reborn, it does not refer to the particular color of any particular person,
but to the attitude of pride and devotion to the race whose homeland
from times immemorial was called "The Land of the Blacks ." Almost
overnight our youngsters made "black" coequal with "white in respectability, and challenged the anti-black Negroes to decide on which side
they stood . This was no problem for many who are light or even nearwhite in complexion, for they themselves were among the first to
proclaim with pride, "call me black!" Those who hate the term but hold
the majority of leadership positions, feel compelled to use it to protect
their leadership roles


I arrived in England in the fall of 1953 to begin formal studies at
Oxford University, primarily through the Institute of Colonial Studies
and at Rhodes House (which might be more properly called Africa
House) . In addition to the study of documentary sources on Africa, I
had other objectives : (l) I wanted a more direct, close-up view of the
European mind, its real attitude toward the black world . I sought to
study both (2) the extent to which European wealth and power were
derived directly from Africa and (3) the nature and philosophy of a
European education that was shaping and determining the mentality of
Africans . I was already fully aware of the disastrous effects of the white
American education system on Black Americans who, not having any
other frame of reference, had to adopt the ideologies and viewpoints of
whites in order to survive, even when those viewpoints were against
them. This meant visiting various classrooms in elementary and
secondary schools, teacher-training institutes, and classrooms of lecturers
and professors in a selected number of colleges in the universities .
These were not "look-in-and-leave" visits, but all-day studies at the
schools, remaining throughout the period in the classrooms, and talking
with students, teachers and principals thereafter. In such a study one
learns very quickly that the textbooks and other works describing
education do not tell the same story as the schools in action tell . (4)
Finally I wanted to know, and again from direct study, exactly what
made Oxford probably the greatest university in the world . What were
the specific elements of that greatness? Was great teaching a factor, and,
if so, who were the great teachers and what made them great teachers?
From just the foregoing aims of the study it must be obvious that I was
still examining various aspects of the probable reasons why whites
became the masters of the globe .
In both France and England I found that the system of education
fostered a new kind of aristocracy-an aristocracy of the "educated ."
College graduates constituted new upper classes . The son of a carpenter
or railroad conductor became estranged from his family and former
friends upon receiving his university degree . A case in point was J .L ., a
young Englishman in my College at Oxford (Lincoln) who was one
of my close friends there . He refused to go home during any of the long
vacation breaks because, to quote him, "I can no longer associate with
my family and old friends . I wouldn't know how to talk to them . We
The Preview

have nothing in common now, you know ."
This British (and European) philosophy of education fitted in ideally
with those Africans from the continent and elsewhere who, unlike J .L .,
came to Europe from the privileged class at home. Some of those
studying in England became more British than the British, just as many
from what was French West Africa became more "French" than the
The first tragedy to note about the effects of this class education on
Blacks is that it further reinforced colonialism's policy of perpetual
disunity in Africa and elsewhere . The line dividing these black "upper"
and "middle" classes from the black masses and their basic aspirations is
more rigidly drawn . And this superior class mentality, becoming even
more crystalized since independence, is an almost certain guarantee of
future uprisings on a scale never seen .
The second great tragedy is in the nature of what is called "education .'
It is mainly rote learning, the ability to memorize phrases, concepts and
other required data . Thinking is neither required nor expected . Critical
analysis and evaluation of subject matter are not required . But the
ability to absorb and recall is required . The brilliant scholar, then, is one
who can readily quote authorities and remember well his bibliographical
sources. So we have a generation of black scholars who continue to
amaze students by mouthing the doctrines and viewpoints of their white
teachers-like so many robots without minds of their own .
Yet study under white teachers and professors should be most
rewarding, and it can be if you do not enter white institutions with a
head like an empty pitcher going to a fountain to be filled . I was safe and
richly rewarded during my studies in white universities only because I
happened not to be so naive that I expected the viewpoints of the
conquerors to be the same as those of the conquered on matters relating
to our place in the world .
Elsewhere I have emphasized, by repetition, that some of the most
fruitful sources for study came quite unintentionally from white scholars .
A case in point was at Oxford . The course was "The History of
Colonialism in Africa ." The presence of two or three Blacks in the class,
while obviously uncomfortable to some, was generally ignored . For
African studies were of long standing an integral part of the imperial
system . They were not planned for Africans at all, but for the future
administrators of the Empire in Africa . So Professor Madden -was
pointing out in his lecture how difficult . and even impossible, it was to
The Destruction of Black Civilization
rule Africans in view of their "wild and most primitive system of
democracy ." For just as fast as African kings or chiefs undertook to carry
out British laws (which displeased the people), "the people would
remove them from office," therefore, this "primitive African democracy
had to be destroyed" before the British system of Indirect Rule could be
effective .
The point here is that these sneering remarks by an eminent British
historian revealed to me an entirely new field of research . That lecture
led me into the study of one of the most significant developments in the
entire history of the black race : an ancient system of democracy (existing
before Greece) evolved from a continent-wide constitution that governed
the whole African people as a single race . This all-important finding was
arrived at by comparative studies of African customary laws in every
region of the continent . The Europeans were confronted with a real
social domocracy that existed long before the terms "socialism" and
"democracy" were invented in the west . For Dr . Madden it was "savage"
because the people were the real rulers, in fact, and not merely in
theory .


Insofar as the study of African history is concerned, I regard direct
investigation in the field, in Africa, as of the highest importance . This
field work should be undertaken only after thoroughgoing research in
written and other documentary sources . The study of available written
sources, their evaluation, and the mounting archaeological records
are all the first major phase of African research and, I would say, a
prerequisite for field-work .
The field work was mainly concerned with oral history . I had noted in
my study of sources of noted historians that many who decried oral
tradition as "unreliable" never failed to use it themselves to supplement
or give added validity to their work . The fact is that neither written nor
unwritten records should be accepted as true without verification .
Although two years were devoted to the field work, the ground
covered was possible only because of careful advance planning and the
scheduling of areas and groups in each country months ahead of my
arrival . These had to be in the hinterland, or "Bush Country," generally
far away from the Westernized urban centers . For our quest was not for
the long-standing tradition of either Islam or Christianity in Africa, but
The Preview 27
for the more ancient tradition of Africa itself . So vast and untapped is
the real history of the African race that I, myself, have only scratched the
surface of what is yet to be done . Some of the areas to be explored by
future historians are set forth in pages which follow this chapter . A
major research project should not be undertaken by a single individual .
That was my mistake-hence, the sixteen years of work that a research
team of eight or ten persons might have completed in three or four .
The kind of well-organized research teams required for in-depth studies
may be difficult to promote because of our pitiful go-it-alone individualism. A research project such as mine should have had a team of highly
trained experts from the fields of history, archaeology, anthropology,
medicine, linguistics, tropical agriculture, political science, etc .
The widely ranging scope of the study minus a team was possible only
because of the interest and active support of certain African governments
and the unforgettable help of the people in every region and country .
For all kinds of help was needed . As indicated above, much had been
pre-arranged . The United States Department of State had notified the
American embassy in each country that I was coming, requesting our
ambassadors to give any requested assistance . Excepting the Sudan,
where embassy officials appeared to be under some kind of fear, the
embassies, everywhere, went all out to be helpful . The embassies had
the very important work of making the advance arrangements for trips
into the interior through the appropriate ministries in each country .
These in turn, had to contact the various provincial governors or
district commissioners who had to make living and conference arrangements with village chiefs, elders, the keepers of oral traditions and other
specified groups . The amount of time all this advance work saved for
the study itself is obvious .
But volunteer work of our African brothers who accompanied me
into the field was what I referred to above as "unforgettable ." Some of
them were teachers who, as in the case of my previous field work (1956-
57), had secured leave for the purpose without any trouble at all .
Indeed, even the people we call "illiterate" had that storehouse of
wisdom which made it easy for them to understand that I was working
not for myself, but, for them, for the whole black race .
I am trying to make it clear here that, although I did not have the kind
of research team referred to above, many people, some 128 in number,
participated in this work and made the outcome possible . So, when at
various places I say "we," it is not the editorial or royal "we," but
2 8

The Destruction of Black Civilization
reference to all the individuals and groups that actually worked on
various parts of the study. However, I had to decline the services of
many highly recommended Africans because of their "upper class"
attitudes toward the common people . For I had learned quite early that
the people in the interior can spot the arrogant and "superior" African
just as easily as they recognize the arrogant and "superior" white
investigator . They will give answers to questions readily enough, but
not the right anwers . I therefore selected only those whose heartbeats
seemed to be tuned to the heartbeats of the great common people from
whom all of us came .
The interpreters were generally assistants who spoke two or three
languages of the country . An entirely new kind of assistant was the
verifying interpreter . They were used to double-check the interpreters
who sometimes would not precisely convey your question or interpret
the exact reply . There were training sessions before and during the field
work. In those fortunate cases where we had four or five competent
assistants, one of the interpreters remained with me, while the others
worked on special assignments in different places in the area .
The documentary research in the United States which preceded the
other preliminaries was not done entirely alone . Some of the most
important areas of my study of ancient sources were rechecked in
independent studies by a select group of graduate students in history .
Their assistance in reappraising such early sources as Manetho,
Herodotus, Josephus, Strabo, Abu Salih, et . al ., was invaluable . Foremost
among these was the Reverend Carleton J . Hayden .
In concluding my remarks on the field studies in Africa, some
comments of four of the countries visited are in order . In the Sudan the
authorities did not want me to work in or even visit the all-black
southern provinces . Their fifteen years of rebellion against the "Arab"
North had caused the whole vast area to be officially "sensitive," and,
therefore, barred to outsiders . The suggestion was that 1 confine my
studies to the Northern Sudan . This I refused because I had been
previously assured that the rebellion had been "completely crushed,"
and that "peace and quiet" prevailed everywhere . Besides, I could only
find Islamic institutions in the North-institutions of which I already
had full knowledge from years of special study and teaching . As
indicated above, the American embassy in Khartoum did none of the
preparatory work about which I give the other U .S . African
embassies so much praise, although it had six months' notice before my
The Preview
. And they maintained a strictly hands-off policy after my arrival .
I, therefore, prepared to leave at once, but announced that I did not beg
to study anywhere, and that the would would learn that this was the
only "African state" where an African scholar was barred . The Ministry
of the Interior reacted swiftly . Not only was permission quickly granted
to do field work in the South, but all the necessary arrangements were
made with dispatch . This included establishing my southern headquarters at Malakal . The simple fact was that while they were quite
familiar with European research people roaming freely all over the
country, a Black doing field studies in the Sudan was a phenomenon
Ethiopia (the new name for Abyssinia), like the Republic of the
Sudan, is also ruled by a people of mixed blood who not only do not
consider themselves African by race, but who maintain a privileged
class society based upon color . To them, all black-skinned Africans are
"Bantu ." To these they feel superior by reason of "white blood," and
their discriminatory practices are just as subtle and real as those of the
whites. And although the enslavement of black-skinned Africans
continues in both countries even in our times, both the Sudan and the
new Ethiopia have adopted the "Brotherhood Front" since the sudden
rise of so many independent African states . This enables the Sudan to
serve as the "bridge" between the Arab world and the new black states,
and thus control or influence their international policies through the
United Nations ; and Ethiopia is able to control, more directly, or
influence Black Africa through Western backing in establishing the
headquarters of the Organization of African Unity in Addis Ababa and
pushing Haile Selassie into the key role . of continent-wide leadership,
thus blocking the "dangerous" influence of Kwame Nkrumah . (It is
because of my steadfast refusal to either skip or gloss over these aspects
of the historical record that I am criticized by many "Negroes"-and I
know exactly when to use this term!)
And now southward to the full white-ruled lands where hostility to a
black face was fully expected : Rhodesia and South Africa . Long before
reaching Southern Africa I was told that I might as well skip Rhodesia,
and that even if I was admitted into South Africa I would not be
permitted to work . But Rhodesia, to the surprise of just about everyone,
pulled out all stops as though it had resolved to outmatch all the black
states in amenities and various kinds of assistance beyond all expectations
or needs . There was the usual press conference, followed by front page
3 0

The Lstruction of Black Civilization
headline coverage of my mission . The (her surprise was an invitation
for TV and radio broadcasts to the natin . Our Zimbabwe friends were
somewhat suspicious of the motives behid all this red carpet treatment
for a Black American, especially when itontinued after my uncompromising replies to questions on a TV )roadcast panel session . The
Ministry of the Interior had an interpret flown 300 miles to join me
when I visited his particular language roup, the Ndebele . The only
objectionable incidents occurred whenon two different occasions in
different places, two district officers offend to attend my meetings with
Chiefs and the Council of Elders . I objecid, and the matter was closed .
Finally, South Africa . The situation i this country is so ridiculous
that, far from allowing myself to be icensed with rage, I found it
amusing . The unremitting brutality of tese whites against the Blacks
leaves them in a state of permanent feaiThey seem to consider every
black man not a potential, but an actul threat . And what they are
occupied with every hour is unbelievablc(ntil you are actually in South
Africa . My passport was a "mistake madeomewhere ." I, of course, had
no intention to do field work in South Alca, but had to pass through it
to reach the surrounded countries then uder British rule . No one at all
was supposed to be barred from passagito and from these countries .
But it required the action of the U .S . Aibassador at Pretoria and an
angry American Consul General at Johanesburg to free me from the
airport room where I was held and che(ed on every thirty minutes .
Even when the Consul General arrivd in person, the authorities
insisted that I must not enter the city, bube taken under guard to the
train for Swaziland . Mr . Riley (the C .G .then decided to defy South
Africa by not only driving me leisurely tlough Johannesburg, but 200
miles around the country, stopping at dif rent towns, and finally on to
Swaziland . What I referred to above as aiusing were incidents such as
excited policemen rushing to flag down ie big Cadillac because they
could so quickly spot a black face before tey saw the seal of the United
States emblazoned on the sides of the ar with the American flag
flying from the hood .
An African is a member of the black rac, and from times immemorial
he was known as such by all peoples of thevorld . Throughout this work
the term refers to Blacks only . It should bmoted also that I write about
the African people-not African peoplesas Western writers do . I am
dealing here with essentially one people, ne "race," if you please, the
African race . In ancient times "African"and "Ethiopian" meant the
The Preview
same thing : A Black . This, of course, was before the Caucasians began
to reorder the earth to suit themselves and found it necessary to stake
their birthright over the Land of the Blacks also . In line with this, some
Western historians have recently wondered where the Africans came
The reasons given for beginning formal studies of Africa at Oxford
implied much more than was stated . Reference was made to studying
the "Caucasian mind," for therein may be found many clues that lead to
a better understanding of the history of Blacks and how the systematic
blackout of significant portions of that history occurred .
That is why I urge those students who intend to accept the great
challenge of basic research in this discipline to go into "enemy territory,"
linger there, study and critically analyze their lectures and their
"scholarly" writings, for they are some of the most rewarding sources for
African history, precisely because in shrewdly attempting to delete,
disguise or belittle the role of Blacks in world history, they often reveal
the opposite of what was intended . They are fruitful sources of unconscious evidence, supplying the very evidence they thought to suppress
or recording facts the significance of which they were totally ignorant . A
fairly good example is the written account of a European explorer in
East Africa . He was outraged because he and his party had to wait two
weeks to present a request to explore the country to the African king .
The black autocrat, the account went on, had the presumption to keep
white men waiting (italics mine) in order to show his people how high
and mighty he was . The whites were denied even a brief audience,
while the king would quickly receive any Black that wandered in from
the countryside . Now the explorer, without knowing it, was actually
reporting how African democracy worked, and how it had been working
before there was an Athens or Greece (where Westerners think
democracy was born) . The explorer would have been surprised to know
that (1) "king" in Africa meant something entirely different from what it
meant in Europe and Asia ; (2) that this black king, far from "putting on
airs," did not have the right to receive them, even socially, without the
presence of at least three senior Elders ; (3) that to consider a petition to
conduct explorations in the country, the full Council of State had to be
called, and that this could not be done by the king without the advice of
the First Minister (who happened to be on tour when the explorers
arrived to the capital) ; (4) and that the "old Blacks" they saw "wandering
in from the countryside" and immediately given audience, were the

The Destruction of Black Civilization
councillors who had been summoned-some from distant provinces-to
pass on their request to explore . They were the direct representatives of
the people . The voice of the king was in fact the voice of the people,
without which he could not act on any matter of importance, or even
talk alone with strangers . It should be clear, therefore, that our guidelines
for research must lead to a critical analysis of all sources, whether
original, secondary or oral . In particular, we should seek out those works
with the special mission to "prove" the superiority of "whites" by
"proving" the inferiority of Blacks-all in language so subtle, scholarly
and scientific, that to the uncritical mind their "truths" seem selfevident . But it is also noteworthy that while the most hostile racist
writers usually prove the very opposite of what they intended, their
works inevitably contain useful factual data that must be accepted .
Indeed, it is doubtful whether anyone, even a devil, could write a book
completely devoid of truth .
Research in African history is more tedious, laborious, and time-consuming than that in other unsuppressed fields . For in developing the
"underdeveloped" history of the Blacks, one has to explore the most
unlikely sources for a fragment here and a fragment there, and in works
in no way concerned with African history, and, just as often, without
any kind of history . Sometimes it is a paragraph or two in an explorer's
account; at other times significant items may be found in the numerous
missionary reports to the home office, explaining the mission's tasks, but
also the native institutions to be overcome . All of these may be valuable
and most valid sources precisely because they were not intended to be
such at all . The writers were detailing bigger European interests . Any
references to Africans were merely incidental to larger purposes . Just
piecing all these fragments together could be a research field by itself .
In my work in European and American history, I ran into no such
problems and the research tasks were easier . In Egyptian history, to give
a final example of Caucasian roadblocks to be overcome, one has the
extra, time-consuming job of identifying the numerous Black giants of
history who have been classified and effectively disguised as Caucasians
over the centuries . First of all . one must know the various names that
referred exclusively to Blacks and by which they were known throughout
the ancient world . For in addition to the more widely used "African"
and "Ethiopian," they were also known as Thebans, Libyans, Thinites,
Nubians, Cushites, Memphites, Numidians, etc . Even before white
Asians gained the ascendency in any of these areas, their very presence
in relatively small numbers was sufficient to identify them as the leaders
and achievers of whatever attracted the attention of the world .
Another trick-the very opposite of the American law and practicewas to classify Africans with "Caucasian blood" as Caucasians . If any of
those so classified turned out to be notorious characters, pro-African or
anti-white, they were loudly proclaimed and contemptuously called
"half-breeds ."
The millions of early Blacks who were forced either by circumstances
or expediency to replace their own names with Asian and European
names only added to the problems of historical identification .
Far from becoming baffled and discouraged by the more painstaking
basic research required, the student of African history must accept the
challenge as a twentieth century mandate that is essential to the salvation of the race in the most literal sense . They will need the active
support of black governments and predominantly black institutions of
learning . These should be actively sponsoring (1) comprehensive, basic
research programs ; (2) research teams for field studies, especially in
history and archaeology ; and (3) a thorough-going teacher-training
program for history and other related disciplines .
What, indeed, are black institutions of learning waiting for? The
young people to show the way? The simple truth is that what is needed
first is active pioneering initiative . Financial assistance would then be
forthcoming even from unexpected sources . Black inertia is the main
problem . there is still too much dependence on white scholars to do our
work for us . I have written elsewhere that as long as we rely on white
historians to write black history for us, we should keep silent about what
they produce . They write form the Caucasian viewpoint, and we are
naive, indeed, if we expect them to do otherwise, all the ballyhoo about
their "scientific objectivity" to the contrary, notwithstanding .


Over the years of studying African history, certain propositions and
theories evolved quite naturally as guiding headlights in the explorations .
A few of them are set forth here, some previously stated or implied :
1 . That Africa, all Africa, is the native homeland of the Blacks,' and
that the Asiatic peoples who occupy North and Eastern Africa, even
though they may have been there for centuries, are no more native
Africans than are the Dutch and British who likewise occupy and
The Preview

'he Destruction of Black Civilization
control the southern regions of th continent . The question of where
the homelands are from which ll of these invaders came is not
2 . Blacks were among the very erliest builders of a great civilization
on this planet, including the devlopment of writing, sciences, engineering, medicine., architecture, rel ;ion and the fine arts .
3 . The story of how such an advaced civilization was lost is one of the
greatest and most tragic in the hisory of mankind and should be the
main focus of research studies in Aican history .
4 . Asian imperialism, though rarly ever mentioned, was, and still is
even more devastating for the Africn people than that of either Europe
or America . The Arabs' white supeiority complex is not one whit less
than that of Europe or America, althugh their strategy of "brotherhood"
deceives naive Blacks .
5 The forces behind the continuos splintering of small groups and
even the breaking up of kingdors and empires, followed by the
equally endless migrations, includedhe steadily increasing death of the
soil and the advance of the deserts,the drying up of lakes and rivers,
along with the attending change of he climate and the always certain
internal strife-all combined with ivasions and famine to become a
way of life .
6 . The strength and greatness of th African people can be measured
by how, in the face of what at timeseemed to be all the forces of hell,
they fought through it all to survive ad rebuild kingdoms and empires,
some of which endured a thousand gars .
7 . Within the framework of eventhe smallest surviving states, the
basic principles of the traditional Afcan constitution were adhered to
and kept alive throughout all the paving centuries as the fundamental .
elements of ancient democratic, socil, political and economic systems
all over the continent .
8 . Africa was the cradle of a relig)us civilization based on the conception of one Supreme God, Creaor of the Universe . This belief in
one Supreme Being ante-dated thaiof the Jews by several thousand
years before Abraham, and the rol4of the numerous sub-deities on
2 . An important fact that should b well known is that all unmixed
Africans are not jet black . For whe the great majority are black
skinned, countless thousands who livd for centuries in cool areas have
lighter complexion-and no "Caucasia blood" at all .
whom Western writers dwell, was exactly the same as that of patron
saints in the Christian world
. I advance further the theory that the early
wandering Hebrews, so numerous in Africa, received many of their
religious ideas in Africa, for there it was that Abraham sojourned,
Moses was born, Joseph lived, and some of the early years of Jesus
Christ were spent
. There is no question that even centuries after
mulattoes and Asians emerged as the only Egyptians, they still regarded
Black Africa as the chief source of the spiritual-"The Land of the
Gods" or "The Land of the Spirits ."
9 Notwithstanding the remarkable civilization they developed even
milleniums before Christ, and the amazing rebuilding of empires in
spite of the great dispersions, notwithstanding all of this, African people
fell far behind in the forward march of the rest of mankind because, in
addition to the destructive forces of nature on the continent and the
hostile force from without, they, the African people, further enshackled
themselves with their own hands through certain aspects of their social
institutions and beliefs that stood as roadblocks to progress even where
conditions where favorable .


This work begins where the history of the Blacks began, in Egypt
(Northern Ethiopia) and the Sudan (Southern Ethiopia) . Thus, at the
very outset, I clash head-on with the Caucasian version of African
history . My focus, then, is on the great issues in the history of the Blacks
that emerge from this confrontation with white scholarship ; for while I
have covered much of the same ground explored by scholars before me,
I have generally reached different conclusions than theirs, and from the
same body of facts .
Let us pause for a moment at this point . I have made a blanket indictment of white Western scholarship on Africa . If it cannot be sustained, it
should never have been made . They are brought under fire at various
points throughout this work-the kind of work, as I also had stated,
should be absolutely needless in the closing years of the 20th century .
The case against Western "Africanists" is rather fully set forth in the
work itself, but may be outlined here as follows :
l . First of all, they are not ignorant of the true history of the Blacks,
including their achievements as builders of one of the first great civilizations on this earth (ancient writers say it was the, very first) ; and they, the

The Destruction of Black Civilization
Western scholars, know all about the authentic early and modern
sources. They simply ignore and refuse to publish any facts of African
history that upset or even tend to upset their racial philosophy that rest
so solidly on premises sanctified by time that they no longer need to be
openly proclaimed .
2 . They are, unwittingly, promoting the steady march toward a world
conflict between the races . Yet they are doing what they feel they must
do, in faithful obedience to their Caucasian culture, the racial pattern of
which emerged in the 17th century . The steady conquest and enslavement of a whole people made it imperative to create both a religious
and a "scientific" doctrine to assuage the white conscience . Their
phenomenal success in the industrial world at once supports and
justifies their philosophy, the supremacy of the fittest . The danger now
arises from an entirely new and unexpected development: A sleeping
and submissive non-white world, while all this white power was being
amassed, is no longer either sleeping or submissive .
3 . Even the African revolt against colonialism and the world-wide
challenge to white domination of the entire earth, even these signals of
change do not disturb these scholars of imperialism . They represent the
Lords of the Earth, controlling all levels of education, science and
research . They control the education of Blacks throughout the world .
Therefore, they see no need, even in the 1980s, to take a new look at the
history of Blacks from its beginning and start the work of restoring the
pages they had either deleted or ignored .
They are doing the very opposite . Their histories and other
"scientific" studies of the Blacks are presented just as they have been for
three hundred years . With the rise and spread of independent African
states and the Black Revolution in the United States, these scholarly
representatives of white supremacy quickly reformed their techniques
of mind control . They set up in Europe and America highly financed
African studies associations, societies, institutes, history journals and
"African" periodicals of various kinds, all under complete white control
and direction . Their African studies programs were pushed in the
colleges and universities far ahead of the general demand by black
youth for black studies . As the latter demands developed, black youth
discovered that white professors not only bad the field occupied, but
were still teaching their traditional viewpoint on "race ."
In the continuing crusade to control the minds of Blacks through the
nature of their education, American and British scholars lead . They are
as ruthless and aggressive in their scholarly pursuits on races as their copartners in seizing and controlling the wealth and peoples of other
lands . Having established strong national and international "African"
associations and journals that attempt to control research activities on
Africa, they proceeded to flood the world with hastily thrown together
African "histories," pamphlets, and publications on just about every
subject that could stand a "Black" title .
4. From their all-powerful "position of strength" they continue to
arrange and rearrange the world as it pleases them, naming and
classifying people, places and things as they will . In the United States,
whites known to have any amount of "Negro blood," no matter how
small, are classified as Negroes ; in Africa, North Africa in particular,
they do the very opposite . Blacks with any amount of "Caucasian
blood" are classified as "white ." This scheme was rigorously applied in
the history of Egypt, for example, where even unmixed black pharaohs
became "white" and the original black population was never referred
to as Egyptian at all! The black kings who founded and 'ruled from the
First Dynasty are disguised as such, while the Saite kings (white) of the
small areas of Lower Egypt are presented as the Pharaohs of all Egypt
even when African pharaohs were on the throne of Upper Egypt .
Blotting the Blacks out of history included replacing African names of
persons, place and things with Arabic and European names. One wave
of the masters' magic wand, and Black Hamites and even Cushites, like
their early Egyptian brothers, are no longer Africans!
5 .7heir periodization of African history is carefully arranged in such a
way that the history becomes the history of Arabs and Europeans in
Africa, and not the history of Africans . In African History, a recent
publication of the American Historical Association as a guide to teaching,
their purpose becomes clear in the arrangement itself: First period .is
from the fall of the Roman Empire to 700 (A .D .), the Arab invasions ;
the second period of African history is the period of "Islamic" civilization, 700 (A.D .) to the coming of the Europeans in 1500 ; the European
Period from 1500 to 1960 is subdivided at 1880 to mark the period
colonialism . There is no period of Black civilization in Black Africa . Such
is the Caucasian viewpoint that is almost a religion . Their very first
period eliminates 4,000 years of Black Civilization and the very greatest
periods of African achievements ; their second period is devoted to the
Arabs and Berbers in Africa ; and in their third period the focus is on
European civilization . And it is all done under the heading of Af ican history .
38 The Destruction of Black Civilization
Where it is impossible to deny black achievements, equal to and often
above the whites, such achievements were attributed to some kind of
Caucasian influence, even if imaginary . Yet, the AHA Publication
Number Fifty-six uses the same strategy that makes Western scholarship
so very triumphant . The main thrusts of its racist presuppositions are,
for the unwary, completely hidden by much highly welcomed factual
materials. But what is certain to disarm almost everyone is racism's
forthright attacks on racism throughout the publication . I suppose no
one is expected to notice the implied incapacity of black historians to
deal with African history objectively . They are not referred to as
historians, of course, they are " . . . some modern African intellectuals
who have tried to show great civilizations in the past, grander than
anything that ever existed ."
As a direct result of this continued universal enslavement through
education, black youth are in revolt . That revolt will become increasingly
dangerous as they begin to realize how completely they are blocked
from self-realization in the very institutions that should further it ; how
difficult it is to find suitable textbooks in black history or even "Negro"
teachers who do not limit themselves to the viewpoints of the white
masters who trained them . The frustrations become more intolerable as
the young find themselves between two fires : The white racists who
determine the very nature of their education and the Negro educators
who also see the world through the blue eyes of the Saxons . In short,
they are forced to turn to their own devices because they find so many
of their own race, who should be working with them, in the camps of
the "enemy ."
Insofar as periodization is concerned, no one should be so naive as to
expect a proper division of African history while the field is almost
completely preempted by the enemies of that history . A proper division
would tend to encourage a more all-inclusive research and a less biased
interpretation of the results . Neither will happen until a new generation
of black research scholars and historians take to the field, becoming the
foremost authorities in their own right-black historians, not a single
one of whom will fall in Professor Phillip D . Curtin's category of black
intellectuals who try to "show great civilizations in the past, grander
than anything that ever existed ." The new research efforts call for black
experts not only in the field of history but also in the allied fields from
which African history must heavily draw : archaeology, anthropology,
linguistics, etc


The first period would begin with "prehistory," primarily because
Nowe, one of the oldest cities on earth, was begun by Blacks before
recorded history . Another important reason is that the Canaanites and
Asians had invaded the Nile Delta and established a stronghold in
Lower Egypt (then Northeastern Ethiopia or Chem) in prehistoric times .
This early concentration of whites along the seacoasts of the Land of the
Blacks is a circumstance of crucial importance in black history"because it
was exactly from this development that the achievements of the Blacks
were overshadowed by later writers or blotted out entirely . The call is
for black specialists for one period in one area . What, for example, was
the actual influence of the white Asians, rigidly held back for centuries
in the lower one-fourth of the country, upon the Blacks who held the
three-fourths that came to be known as Upper Egypt? Review and indepth studies of this period are required . The general historian is out .
The best general histories, region by region, can be written only after
the work of the specialists is done .
The second period might well be from the conquest of Lower Egypt
by the Ethiopian leader, Menes, in 3100 B .C . to the end of the Sixth
Dynasty, 2181, also the end of the Old Kingdom .' This was the period
that gave birth to Egypt, and before which there was no Egypt . It was
the period during which black kings united the "Two Lands," started
the dynastic (lineage) system, and began the building of the greatest
civilization . The greatest in-depth review and concentration of research
should be focused on this second period . It was, in fact, the Golden Age
in the history of the Blacks, the age in which they reached the pinnacle
of a glory so dazzling in.achievements that Western and Arab writers felt
compelled to erase it by the sheer power of their position, beginning
black history over 3,000 years later, and limiting it-such as they
allowed, to "Africa South of the Sahara ."
The third period of black history in Egypt should begin with the
Seventh Dynasty, 2181 B.C ., and subdivided into the tragic periods of
internal turmoil and white invasions . The first subdivision would be
from 2181 B .C . to 2040 B .C . covering the Seventh Eighth, Ninth, and
Tenth Dynasties . Thereafter, strict chronology should be ignored in
3 . Earlier dates, such as 4500 B.C ., are also given and accepted by
many authorities ; for conflicting dates do appear in ancient records . I do
not debate the point .
40 The Destruction of Black Civilization
order to focus on a single issue : The role of invasions and conquests in
the destruction of black civilization with the resulting ethnic transformation of Egypt from black to brown (Afro-Asian and Afro-European), to
white .
This means that the second subdivision would bypass the Restoration
period of the great Eleventh and Twelfth Dynasties for the next period
of invasion and conquest, the Hebrew (Hyksos) rule, 1645-1567 B.C .
Again, bypassing the New Empire, the other subdivisions would study
the periods of Assyrian, Persian, Greek, Roman and Arab invasions and
the impact of their conquests and rule on the Blacks .
The fourth major division would begin with the skipped-over Eleventh
and Twelfth Dynasties, 1786-1233 B.C ., the great Eighteenth, 1567-
1320, and then continue from the Age of Ramses to the end of the
Twenty-fourth Dynasty, 1330-730 .
The fifth period should be from the last of the Black pharaohs to the
destruction of the remaining southern division of the Ethiopian Empire
below the First Cataract, 730 B .C . to the fifth century (A.D .) .
The sixth period : From the reemergence of successor black states in
the fifth century A .D . to their final destruction by the Arabs in the
thirteenth century .
The seventh period, like the second, should not be a time division of
neat and largely irrelevant chronological sequences . It is a study of
migrations of the Blacks that covered many centuries, but which became
more widespread and desperate after the Arab conquest of the original
center of black civilization in the Sudan . The long periods of wandering
all over the continent, often aimlessly, comprised the great historic race
of the Blacks for survival, a race that tried to outdistance famine,
disease, slavery and death . The period that deserves more intense study
and critical analysis extends from the thirteenth century to colonialism
in the nineteenth .
Elsewhere I have posed the most perplexing question : If the Blacks
were among the very first builders of civilization and their land the
birthplace of civilization, what has happened to them that has left them
since then, at the bottom of world society, precisely what happened?
The Caucasian answer is simple and well-known : The Blacks have
always been at the bottom . This answer is clear even in the histories and
other educational material which whites so busily prepare for Blacks .
Almost all of the true answers will be found in the study of the causes of
the migrations and the tragic results stemming directly from those
seemingly endless movements of fragmented peoples .
How was the art of writing lost by one of the first peoples to invent it?
Study the migrations
. How and why did a once-great people, with a
common origin, splinter off into coutless countless little independent
societies and chiefdoms from which 2,000 different languages and
dialects developed? Study the migrations . What caused the brotheragainst-brother internecine wars, hatreds, slavery and mutual suspicion
among the various black societies? Again, study the migrations!
There would be several subdivisions of great importance . Slavery and
the slave trade, for example, would include Africa, Asia and the
Americas. This would be the background for later periods covering
black history in the United States, South America and the Caribbean
areas .
The eighth division is the reemergence of African kingdoms and
empires, by regions, between the tenth and nineteenth centuries . This
was the period during which there were attempts in every region of
Africa to restore the glory that was Ethiopia's . It is doubtful if any of
these black states realized that they were being slowly but steadily
surrounded and hemmed in from all directions by invaders from the
seacoasts and across the Sahara . The ultimate fall of the black states,
first under Islamic and then under European Christian blows, closed
this period with the triumph of colonialism .
The final period is the Black Revolution that ended political
colonialism with the rise of politically independent states . This would
take us from 1950 to the present, and should be subdivided for the
developments in Black America, South America, and the "Islands of the
Seas ."
From the new approach and plan for research, study and development of African history presented above, "periodization," while
recognized as highly important, is not allowed to so fragment a great
movement or development covering many periods and milleniums that
their real significance is lost . Examples are the ethnic transformation of
Egypt from black to brown to white, and the long centuries of the great
migrations . These defied periodization in any meaningful sense .
I'only made passing reference in the work to Blacks scattered outside
of Africa over the world, not from the slave trade, but from dispersions
that began in , prehistory . This fact alone indicates the great tasks of
future scholarship on the real history of the race . We are actually just on
the threshold, gathering up some important missing fragments . The
biggest jobs are still ahead .

The Destruction of Black Civilization
Ancient China and the Far East, for example, must be a special area
of African research . How do we explain such a large population of
Blacks in Southern China, powerful enough to form a kingdom of their
own? Or the black people of Formosa, Australia, the Malay peninsula,
Indo-China, the Andaman and numerous other islands? The heavy
concentration of Africans in India, and the evidence that the earliest
Aryan chiefs were black (which will make Hitler rise from his grave)
open still another interesting field for investigation . Even the "Negroid"
finds in early Europe appear not to be as challenging as the black
population centers in Asia . For, again, reference is not made to small
groups which may have wandered anywhere over the earth ; rather, our
concern is with great and dominant populations . These are the Blacks
who have so puzzled Western scholars that some theorize that Asia or
Europe may be the homeland of Africans after all . The African populations in Palestine, Arabia and Mesopotamia are better known, although
the many centuries of black rule over Palestine, South Arabia, and in
Mesopotamia should be studied and elaborated in more detail . All of
this will call for a new kind of scholarship, a scholarship without any
mission other than the discovery of truth, and one that will not tremble
with fear when that truth is contrary to what one prefers to believe .
Nothing is clearer than the tragic fact that Africa, like the rest of the
black world, has only the illusion of being free and independent . It is
only about one-third free . It is still as economically enshackled as it ever
was, in some respects more so. The study of this period and the
conditions it presents will confront the Blacks of the world with the final
challenge . The response to that challenge will be the test of the genius of
the race . The outcome and, indeed, the whole future of the race
depends upon the extent to which we have become intellectually
emancipated and decaucasianized enough to pioneer in original thinking .
Those who do become free in fact, will no longer readily grab the white
man's ideologies and systems whether capitalism, the Western version of
democracy, or communism, without a critical review and analysis to
determine whether Africa's own traditional system, when updated, may
not be truly superior and best fitted to meet the aspirations of the black
world . This last period, then, is the time of great decisions . It may well
be the black race's last chance for a rebirth and salvation .
The division proposed above for a new approach in the research,
teaching and study of African history will outrage most Western and
Arab scholars, along with their subservient Negro followers, because I
The preview
of B
have shifted the main focus from the history of Arabs and Europeans in
Africa to the Africans themselves, a history of the Blacks that is a history
lacks . They will be coming back, center stage, into their own history
at last But to what end? Will it be just for the intellectual satisfaction
of knowing
our true history? Knowing it, but so what?The answer is
unless from history we learn what our strengths were and,
especially, in what particular aspect we are week and vulnerable . Our
history can then become at once the foundation and guiding light for
united efforts in serious planning what we should be about now .


The Overview

unto itself covering 12,000,000 square miles . From its northernmost
point in what is now Tunisia to Cape Aqulhas is approximately 5,000
miles, and in its widest extent from east to west it is 4,600 miles . The
whole of this second largest continent was once Bilad as Sudan, "The
Land of the Blacks," and not just the southern region to which they had
been steadily pushed from the north . After Asian, Greek and Roman
occupations, the term "Sudan" came to indicate the areas not yet taken
from the Blacks and was co-extensive with the Ethiopian empire .
For the Ethiopian empire once extended from the Mediterranean
north and southward to the source of the Nile in the country (Abyssinia)
which recently reverted to the ancient name of the Ethiopian empire of
which in earlier times it formed its southeastern provinces . Even as late
as the times of Menes, 3,100 B.C ., Ethiopia still included three-fourths
of Egypt, or up to twenty-nine degrees North parallel . The Asians held
the Delta region, hence "The Two Lands" -well-known to all historians
but never fully explained . (To explain the "Two Lands," of course,
would blast the myth about the builders of Egyptian Civilization .)
It was pointed out that the study of the Blacks must begin in Egypt
because most of their indestructible monuments are there ; and, further,
because many of the artifacts archaeologists have been uncovering
during the past seventy-five years as "Egyptian" are in fact "African ."
Yet the very "Heartland of the Race" and the cradle of civilization were
actually further south below the First Cataract, centered around the
The Overview

capital cities of Napata and Meroe . From there black civilization spread
north, reaching its most spectacular achievements in what became
known as "Egyptian Civilization ."
The general condition of vast stretches of uninhabited and uninhabitable land over the continent seemed to support the Western thesis that
Africans never developed any worthwhile civilization with a notable
historic past. The more charitable might add that in the very nature of
their situation it could not have been otherwise . Samuel Baker went far
in promoting the idea of African innate inferiority even if he had to use
the most forbidding area in Africa to do it-the terrible swamplands of
the Sudd, an area south of Khartoum, that, in its full extent, is as big as
England . No one would claim that any kind of society, civilized or
savage, could exist in the Sudd Swamplands, probably the largest in the
world . For it was neither all land nor water, but a seemingly endless
mass of rotting vegetation, interwoven tree-like vines, steaming heat,
swarming man-killing mosquitoes, crocodiles, hippos and other unknown
forms of tropical life . The conclusion of Baker andd others was that they
were in a land where time had stood still since its beginning, where life
never advanced and the human species had simply rotated in aimless
cycles like the animal life in the Sudd .
As late as the 1840s and 50s these explorers, even the most ignorant,
should have known that in the same vast continent of wastelands,
tropical rain forests and swamplands, there were also areas of arable
land and civilized states . But they wrote about what they saw the most
of: vast stretches of wasteland and secluded groups of "strange" people .
But, as we shall see, some of the great kingdoms and empire-builders
in Africa seem not to have known the meaning of failure or to have any
ideas about surrendering to fate . Ejected here, they led the people
there-and began to build again .
Wherever the splintered-off refugee groups found a place where the
soil seemed favorable for cultivation, and the land unoccupied by preceding migrants, they settled and began to build villages again . A sense
of relative security was a necessary factor in deciding where to begin a
new settlement . A crucial question was how many miles had they put
between the slave hunters and themselves? For the kind of houses and
community buildings they would erect depended directly on the
probability of permanent settlement or sudden flight again . In short,
they could build large, sturdy and attractive compound homes and
temples of worship or easily demolished huts .

The Destruction of Black Civilization
It was for reasons of security that so many of these groups, later called
tribes or societies, sought the most hidden and isolated areas they could
find . This permanent separation from their kinsmen in other groups
was generally quite contrary to their hearts' desires . The original
splintering off and parting was often done in tears . But breaking up into
smaller units seemed to be the only route to survival in a permanent
crisis situation-apparently permanent, since the movement of people
over the continent had been going on so far beyond the memory of each
generation that migrations and temporary settlements were among the
most significant facts in the oral tradition of each society .
Fragmentation and isolation had two momentous consequences . The
first was that the isolation of various groups led to the development of
over two thousand different dialects and languages . The second fateful
outcome was that the rise of all these tongues widened the gulf between
the Blacks that territorial distances had already achieved . One should
pause here for reflection if there is any serious attempt to really
understand what happened to the African people and why . For even
without the aid of Western writers in emphasizing the language
differences and thee cultural variations and attempting to show how
unrelated the Blacks were, they, in time, came to consider themselves
unique with each society not only independent of the other but
independent of its enemy, if only potentially . Disunity and mutual
suspicion became an African way of life . Small chiefdoms sprang up
everywhere, often no more than a village of one or two hundred people .
Africa, therefore, presented itself to Asia and Europe as the ideal land
for exploitation, enslavement and conquest .
The history is complex and many-sided, and would be so if we were
discussing just one nation and not an entire continent . Ths is why our
focus must be on the main lines of development, the African-wide
aspects, and the unmistakable common origin and continent-wide
sameness of basic institutions which these universal aspects reflect .
There were, then, different outcomes for different societies . Some
perished even to the last member from disease, starvation or warfare .
Others, despairing of ever again being able to have a fixed abode,
became nomads . Some, although isolated so long that .they had
developed different languages and customs, had nevertheless decided
that salvation required a union with other groups . These were the tribes
that merged with other tribes, lost their separate identity and languages ;
and who evolved from this process a single common language, larger
The Overview

and larger chiefdoms, kingdoms, and finally empires that began the
rebirth of their long lost civilization .
The fiercest wars between the Blacks occurred in the founding and
expansion of new kingdoms and empires . For while the core groups
were voluntary confederations, expansion of an empire required the
conquest of neighboring states, usually small, independent chiefdoms,
that preferred to maintain their absolute sovereignty . The repercussions
from this forced unity by conquest were to shake the continent from
end to end centuries later when European political rule ended .
Modern Africans and students of Africa have tended to emphasize
the destructive impact of European imperialism in Africa while ignoring
the most damaging developments from the Arab impact before the
general European takeover in the last quarter of the nineteenth century,
a relatively recent period . This point is important . For one of the most
remarkable chapters in the history of the Blacks is that dealing with
those dauntless leaders and people who, having lost one state after
another along with three-fourths of their kinsmen, nevertheless overrode
all the forces of destruction and death and began to build, always once
again, still another state . From the earliest times the elimination of these
states as independent African sovereignties had been an Asian objective,
stepped up by Muslim onslaughts after the seventh century A .D . So the
reestablished black states were still being conquered and Islamized
when Europeans began to arrive in great numbers to impose their rule
over both Asians and Africans. The big thing that happened here, to
repeat, is generally glossed over, ignored or forgotten . The last being a
pretension, since a historical development of this magnitude could
hardly be forgotten by serious writers on Africa . For what happened,
very simply, was that European imperialism in Africa checked and
replaced Arab imperialism . The Arab screams against Western imperialism are the screams of outrage against Western imperialists for checking
and subduing Eastern imperialists in the very midst of the Blacks they
had conquered . There are still countless thousands of Blacks who are
naive enough to believe that the Arabs' bitter attack on Western
.colonialism show their commong cause with Black Africa .
4 8

The Destruction of Black Civilization
Insofar as those who were fortunate enough to find promising areas
for settlement are concerned, the picture was generally one of statebuilding and the revival of basic African institutions which, though not
forgotten, could neither be maintained nor developed by any people
forever on the move .
But what about the countless societies, fleeing before the conquering
hordes and the enslavers, as well as famine and the deaths which were
their daily companion ; what about those who found no Promised Land
anywhere? For quite unlike the societies I mentioned that could settle
down and had the opportunity to start and develop civilizations
comparable to any elsewhere in the world at the time, these people
could neither settle down nor, therefore, develop a civilization . What
they suffered from year to year as they wandered over the continent is
almost beyond both description and belief . In fact, while the story is
well-known, few writers would want to go into its awful details . Suffice
to say at this point that, here, then, were numerous societies of Africans
that were virtually sentenced either to death from starvation or
enslavement by Arabs (I am still in the pre-European period) or
barbarism and savagery and, in many cases, even cannibalism .
Under such conditions I would defend not only the retrogression of
these people to barbarism, but to cannibalism itself . The defense of the
latter is easy, since it has been well-established that other supposedly
highly civilized men will revert to savagery and cannibalism under prolonged conditions of extreme hunger and thirst, when survival itself was
the only question that dominates the human mind . This phenomenon
of reverting to a state of savagery and even cannibalism under extreme
conditions of starvation is known to occur universally among various
peoples-white, black, brown, red, or yellow .
The facts we have, then, show that after they lost Egypt and the
Eastern Sudan, some Africans, overriding all adverse conditions, grouped
themselves to form nations and developed a high order of civilization
independent of any external influences . Others never settled anywhere
long enough to develop anything notable, but seemed to remain in a
state of lethargy or suspended animation . They had surrendered to fate
and became too weak to fight hack . They descended to a state of semibarbarism . "Descended," because most of these societies had known
better times and a higher order of life . Some in more favorable circumstances, nevertheless, failed to advance . Still others were in the class
discussed in connection with cannibalism-hunger-crazed people who
They Overview 49
had sunk to the lowest levels of dog-eat-dog existence . These last are the
people about whom European and American authors delight to write .
No cartoons are better known than those showing a sweating white man
(usually an explorer or missionary) being cooked in a huge black pot,
while black savages dance around with human bones decorating their
heads or stuck through pierced noses . The idea these "experts" on
Africa have been planting, and still actively plant, in the minds of the
peoples of the world is that "This is Africa, and these are the savages
who are now clamoring for independence!"


The question of physiology, vegetation, climate, water, and soil are all
more crucial in the history of the Blacks than they are in the case of any
other people . For here a whole continent is involved, and on that
continent a people who, in one period of time, were among the
foremost people on earth, and in a later period, the farthest behind .
Nature itself set an environmental stage in a manner and under
conditions which appear to have been designed to test to the utmost
one race's moral, intellectual and physical powers to override all obstacles
to survival .
The slow but relentlessly steady withdrawal of inhabitable land over
the centuries eventually left Africa a land of desolation, a wasteland, the
greater part of which was desert and treeless grassland with only a
fractional part, about ten percent, with the much needed forests and
thickets . Even the continental land configuration was against its native
inhabitants . Like a vast inclined plane, the highlands, beginning in
Central Africa at 3,000 feat above sea level, rose southward to higher
and higher levels, reaching the highest level of 15,000 feet in the southeastern provinces of the ancient Ethiopian empire . This caused Africa to
slope northward and its principle, the Nile in particular, to flow in the
same direction . This single circumstance cause the Blacks to lose the
very earliest centers of their civilization and the heartland of the raceEgypt and the southern area that was later called the Sudan (or Land of
the Blacks, just as though Egypt itself was not also formerly the "Land of
the Blacks") . For the greatest of their rivers, the Nile, played still another
tragic joke on its people . This river, the longest in the world, flows 4,127
miles across Africa from Lake Nyanza to the Mediterranean . Yet not
until it reaches Assuan (Aswan) and begins its last stretch of 750 miles to

The Destruction of Black Civilization
the sea does it overflow to further enrich 13,500 square miles of already
fertile soil in Egypt! For its 3,377 miles through the heart of Black Africa,
the Nile sank as it cut deep canyons in its soft limestone floor, leaving
cliffs at places from a few hundred to a thousand feet high . What this
means is that for over 3,000 miles through the eastern side of the
continent the Nile was collecting the rich soil carried to it by the heavy
rains and a thousand tributary streams . These flow into the "Mother of
Rivers" and add to the enrichment of its waters flowing northward,
"guarded" all the way by her deep channels until it reaches the hard
sandstone bottom above Assuan and then begins its periodic overflow
the rest of the way to the sea! Here, a natural phenomenon cheated the
Africans in a big way that was to have dire consequences . There could
be no black "Daughter of the Nile," observed Parsons in his Streams of
History . For the Nile, in making Upper Ethiopia (Egypt) so rich in food
production that it became world famous not only as the "Bread Basket
of the World," but also for its highly advanced civilization, stirred the
envy of Asia and Europe-from which continents migrants began to
settle .
Even in this, the physical geography of Africa was favorable to the
"peaceful" settlers who later were to become its conquerors and rulers ;
for the seacost is lowland everywhere, not more than 500 feet above sea
level, and remains lowland 500 miles inland . Asian and European
occupation of the sea coasts of North Africa and East Africa was,
therefore, relatively easy, and probably even welcomed at first by the
Blacks as co-partners in world trade . But the poor and hungry nomads
from the vast desert areas of the Middle East poured into the most
fertile and easily accessible areas of this other land of deserts that is
North Africa .
There were several consequences of the greatest historical importance
which are generally not sufficiently stressed . The first was that both the
Saharan transformation and the steady incursion of Asians pressured
more and more Blacks back into the interior to concentrate in the
already limited survival areas where just to subsist was a daily struggle .
The second important result was the wide-spread amalgamation of the
races . For the weaker, more submissive Blacks remained in Asianoccupied territory to become slave laborers and slave soldiers, . and to
witness a ruthless sexual traffic in Black women that gave rise to a new
breed of Afro-Asians . These were classed as Caucasians or Asians .
They themselves bitterly objected to being identified with the race of
The Overview

their mothers-African . When these later became known as Egyptians
in Egypt, Moors in Morocco and Mauretanians or Carthaginians in
Carthage (Tunis), great care was taken to distinguish them from Africans
in daily intercourse, in paintings and in documentary literature . This
"New Breed," half-African, was to join with their Asian fathers and
forefathers in the wars and enslaving raids against the Blacks that went
on century after century until all North Africa was eventually taken .
Still another fateful geographical factor that favored the invaders has
been implied or partly stated in the foregoing observations . Aside from
the easy occupation of the lowlands of the seacoast and the gradual
taking-over of the rich lands of the Nile valley and its ancient civilization,
both Asians and Europeans found the highlands of southern and
eastern Africa "more pleasant and healthy for Caucasian settlement ."
This meant that even after nature had damned three-fourths of the
continent's land mass as impossible to support human life, the Asians
and Europeans came in to seize and hold the best of the one-fourth that
was left . The Blacks found themselves cut off from all seacoasts that
then mattered, hemmed in from all directions, and confined within
narrower and narrower limits . Thus they became a wandering people,
forever migrating in their own vast homeland, fragmenting from great
united nations into countless little splinter societies, becoming so isolated
from each other that each formed a new language of its own, considering
themselves quite different from their original brothers who were then
regarded as strangers and enemies in the endless tribal wars that ensued
over the inhabitable land . The land over which these struggles took
place varied in different regions . So did the climate that so greatly
affected it ; the people, and even some of their institutions, varied under
environmental influences . The land mass in the eastern regions, for
example, has been undergoing a vertical movement of elevation, a
sinking and leveling process occasioned by the atmosphere and
weathering since Miocene times . Geologists trace the elevation of the
mountains in the area, including Kilimanjaro, and the faulting and
fracturing that created the Great Rift, to early volcanic activity .
In the arid and semi-arid regions there are vast stretches of desolate
land which were not made so by nature alone . For, like the Sahara itself,
much of it was once woodland where animal life flourished and streams
flowed . Man played the leading role in this destruction by the use of fire
in his shifting farm methods . Animals also helped in the process . The
relation of green grass and forest to climate and climate to rainfall seems
5 2

The Destruction of Black Civilization
not to have been known or fully appreciated . In treeless and grassless
areas the periodic rains evaporate into non-water-holding earth . One
may travel hundreds of miles over regions of this kind without finding a
single stream . All rivers and streams have disappeared like the raindrops in the sand . Because of the same physical characteristics of the
land previously discussed, irrigation was extremely difficult, and in most
places impossible, outside of Egypt .
We have spoken so much about African deserts of sand and rocks
that one might be misled into thinking that it was this kind of land alone
that could not support a population . But there were vast non-desert
areas of hard red and red-brown soil that had been leached by heavy
rainfall, robbed of its essential elements for vegetation (such as calcium
and phosphorus), and, of course, its once rich humus of top-soil . this
continuous weathering was obviously destructive . The soil problem was
further aggravated by having underneath floors of hard laterite elements,
just as though there was a master plan to guarantee that this soil would
not hold any water . Therefore, the problem involved far more than
restoring top-soil and a land conservation program to prevent erosion,
because the hard floor underneath drained away the rainfall as fast as it
reached that level . "No corner or scrap of land in Africa has escaped
hunger," says Josue de Castro in his Geography of Hunger . "This is a
continent of the starving, all of it . And in hunger and chronic
malnutrition may he found one of the most decisive reasons for the
backwardness of Africa, for the relative stagnation and lassitude of the
greater part of its people ."
But the "Garden of Eden" areas must not be overlooked when we are
considering the general, overall conditions . These are areas which,
while not comparable to the rich flood plains of the Nile valley and
Delta, have unfertilized soil that nevertheless produce a surprisingly
rapid growth of abundant vegetation and a heavy concentration of
animal and bird life . These are the areas where fruits and nuts of many
varieties grow in abundance without the aid of man . Without these
areas of salvation here and there over the continent, along with pastoral
grazing land, the Blacks as a race would have doubtlessly perished from
the earth .
They almost did . The trend once seemed to be definitely in the
direction of extinction . Even if we dismiss accounts of planned mass
extermination by their enemies as "unreliable," too many other threats
to survival remained to darken every ray of hope . Disease was
The Overview 53
everywhere the offspring of distress, privation, hunger and malnutrition .
It spread over the land as advance scouts for death . Over half of Africa's
babies were either born dead or died soon after birth . Old age was
between forty and fifty years . Three-fourths of the people, as even
today, are still weakened by malnutrition and malarial water, and a
number of diseases that are largely traceable to these two causes :
beriberi, pellagra, scurvy and even leprosy . The scourge of childhood is
Kwaskiokor, or malignant malnutrition .
This accelerated depopulation of the black man's countries resulting
from the nature of soil and climate, mass enslavement, deaths in
resisting slavery, wars of conquest, intertribal conflicts, exhaustions
from endless flights and migrations and ever-present disease-all this
reduced the Black population by three-fourths! Under reasonable,
favorable conditions, the African population today would he four times
its present number . And when it is pointed out that three-fourths of the
people today are still weakened by malaria and malnutrition, reference
is made to the one-fourth of the people who survived in spite of it all .
How, then, were the Blacks able to battle invading enemies from one
end of the continent to the other for several thousand years? True, they
were overcome in the end, but what sustained them through all those
centuries of struggle on so many different fronts and against so many
different kinds of enemies? Weakened so generally by both disease and
what became perpetual hunger, whence came their strength and courage
to carry on? It may well he that the answers lie in the death-defying
pyramids they built in Egypt when the land was theirs .



which the genius of any people for thinking, inventing, discovering and
building will be inhibited or eventually die under extreme circumstances .
A few of these pre-conditions for progress are : (1) The people must
become famine-free and able to settle down and end their perennial
roaming from place to place in search of food and water . (2) Finding
suitable territory, the leaders must proceed, through negotiations with
other neighboring societies and fragmented groups, to nation-building . (3) A crucial pre-condition : There must be developed a sense of
5 4

The Destruction of Black Civilization
national community among the various language groups that make up
the country . This is so important that it cannot be left to wishful
thinking or chance . It must be programmed in such a way that a sense of
loyalty and of being an important part of a great united brothersisterhood, which is the nation itself, will develop naturally and allow (4)
a strong army for defense, and (5) the reign of law and justice to apply
equally to all classes in the society . The people must feel absolutely
secure as individuals, that in their country there is equal justice for all .
In short, certain conditions in a country can bring about that internal
peace, stability, and confidence which unshackle the mind . There is
now time to think . No more trekking with bleeding feet for hundreds of
miles across rocky deserts . No more seeing your kinsmen fall out to
welcome death along the way . A home at last, better farms, plenty of
food . And now . . . time to think . There is nothing mystical about the reasons why one group of people
can easily become physically and mentally strong while another becomes
physically weak and less mentally alert . An abundance of nutritious
food and pure drinking water may spell the difference between advance
and decay . The number of death-dealing diseases developing from malnutrition alone is alarming . But what should be stressed above everything
else is that millions of babies may become both physically and mentally
retarded by disease while in their mother's wombs-which is another
way of saying that a people wholly ignorant or indifferent to basic health
can themselves become inferior in fact . But even this central fact, when
fully realized, will still remain in the field of mere discussion until Blacks
everywhere begin mass organization for mass education for the masses .
The system is so structured, worldwide, that Blacks are forced into
conditions that can even lead to genetic inferiority . There must be a
breakthrough or there will be gradual extinction . This is the final precondition for survival and advancement .
Your attention is called again to the map of Africa, for it is very
significant where the earliest invaders entered and permanently settled .
They took over the areas of trade that allowed easy contact with their
homeland and the other nations of trhe world . This is a point that
simply cannot be overstressed in considering the plight of the African
people . In the north they settled around the Meditteranean, thereby
maintaining contact with Europe and Asia . In the northeast, east, and
south, they settled along the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, thereby
The Overview

keeping in touch with their homeland and the trade countries farther
away. Black Africa was thus hemmed in and effectively cut off,
commercially and otherwise, from the rest of the world .
The techniques of penetration and dominance were varied . Some
came as peaceful traders and, doubtless, trade was all that was intended
by many . Africans were always eager traders . The main attraction of
foreign traders was that they brought in many new kinds of commodities . These traders had little or no trouble in gaining coastal footholds as
trading posts . The land was not sold, but leased . However, the Blacks
had what the world wanted most : gold, diamonds, ivory, copper, iron
ore and, themselves.
The "trading posts" soon became strong fortifications around which
villages and towns sprang up as settlers from Asia poured in and armed
forces became organized . The Africans watched these developments
with increasing apprehension, for the "traders" were often armed with
superior and different types of weapons of war and spent much time in
training recruits, including Africans . Indeed, in some areas a definite
pattern emerged : an all-African army under Asian officers (a pattern to
be followed later by the Europeans) .
This was easy enough for the Arabs . They owned the captured
Africans who made up their fighting forces . The Africans could blame
only themselves for this . Here, as in certain other things, they were still
engaged in practices which, while once universal, had long since been
dying out or generally abandoned by the rest of the world . This one was
the enslavement of captured prisoners of war . When African chiefs and
kings began to sell these to slave-hungry Arabs, they set in motion a
chain of events that was to undermine the civilizations of the most
advanced societies on the continent, further checking their progress and
degrading their whole race for another two thousand years . When the
sale of their fellows became the chief source of wealth, African leaders
became increasingly estranged from the finest thing in African life, the
sense of community and of kinship with all who would be friends . When
Freed severed the traditional ties of brotherhood, the gradual movement
of the invaders from the coastal areas inland became relatively easy .
Blacks against Blacks with increasing suspicion and hatred may be
traced to the Africans' own slave raids . The inland raids for slaves were
resisted by some chiefs and the raiders were attacked . But this opposition
5 6

The Destruction of Black Civilization
was not always due to any opposition to slavery, but to this kind of
direct action which bypassed the chiefs and thereby eliminated their
profits .'



Other invaders found penetration easy under the banners of religion .
Full advantage was taken of the fact that Africans are a very religious
people . First came the Crescent flag of the Prophet . The Islamic advance
was three-pronged : proselytizing missions claiming one brotherhood ;
widespread intermarriages and concubinage with African women, due
to the Muslim system of polygamy ; and forceful conversions at sword
point . The Cross of Jesus Christ followed the Muslim Crescent . The
cloak of Christianity was a most convenient hiding place for those who
had other designs . Hence, the drive to convert . Conversion here meant
far more than conversion to Christianity . As in the case of Islam, it
meant change into the white man's image, his ideas and value system .
The real object of worship turned out to be neither Jesus Christ nor His
Father, God, but Western man and Western civilization . Christian
brotherhood? Well, eh, yes! In principle . Or, to be practical, you Blacks
can have all the Christian brotherhood you desire-among yourselves .
Apartheid was Africa-wide under colonialism, and not a peculiarity of
the South African system as so many are led to think .'
But what happened in the process of converting the Blacks to Islam
and Christianity was the supreme triumph of the white world over the
black . Millions of Africans became non-Africans . Africans who were
neither Muslims nor Christians were classed as "pagans" and therefore
required to disavow their whole culture and to regard practically all
African institutions as "backward" or savage . The Blacks in their own
right became non-persons, members of a race of nobodies, so hopeless
that self-realization as personalities, even in a subordinate status, could
only be achieved by becoming Muslims or Christians . Indeed, in order
to destroy completely not only their African heritage, but also their very
1 . There were, however, numerous chiefs who not only opposed
slavery, but fought against it to the death =literally . Some were encircled
and with their whole people died fighting the enslaver to the end .
2 . The pattern of continent-wide segregated communities can be seen
even today in independent African states .
The Overview

African identity psychologically, they were forced to change their names
to Arabic and Christian names . Henceforth, if these Black Emils, Johns,
Muhammads, Samuels, and Abdullahs happened to achieve greatness
in some field, the assumption would be that it was Caucasian achievement, unless a special effort was made to identify the race of the persons
in question . Blacks at home in Africa and Blacks scattered over the
world bore the names of their enslavers and oppressors, the ultimate in
self-effacement that promoted a self-hatred which made pride in the
race difficult . That these psychological shackles still handicap not only
the rebirth of modern African states, but also Blacks everywhere,
should he obvious to all .
Finally, there were the invaders who apparently disdained the cloak
of deception and came in fighting . They had no problems . They knew
in advance that they would find the Africans, almost everywhere,
unprepared to defend themselves against a well-organized, well-trained
body of men, no matter how small . This situation developed as splinter,
independent little states became more and more numerous . The use of
secret agents seems to be as old as organized states ; for the practice of
sending spies as goodwill ambassadors, traders, etc ., well in advance
into a country to be invaded, goes far back into antiquity . Those sent
into Africa from various lands could report back that :
1 . The Africans were largely a peaceful people engaged in agriculture,
mining trades, fishing, the arts, crafts of various kinds and manufacturing
such things as pottery, furniture, building materials, boats, weapons of
war, etc .
2 . These settled states and their generally highly developed social
and political systems indicate their advanced civilization .
3 . But they were ill-prepared for war, except against their neighbors,
who also use the kind of spears, bows and arrows which we had
abandoned long since .
4 . In general, they have no swiftly moving, mounted soldiers . One
hundred of our dashing calvarymen with fire-power could put 10,000 of
them to flight.
5 . They are a secretive people . For while they are fully aware of the
great mineral wealth of the continent, they use it in a very limited way,
mainly for personal adornment, and have no desire to open up to
foreigners for world commerce that would greatly benefit them .
Accordingly, they rigidly limit their trading activities, but mainly because
5 8

The Destruction of Black Civilization
Asians hold all of their seacoasts and have them cut off from the world
and its trade .
6 . Finally, the whole of Africa could, with a few exceptions, be
progressively taken over simply by picking off one small state after
another . For the overall pattern of the continent is one of countless
small independent groups, each for itself and itself alone . There is no
unity among them, even for a common defense. Since it is the first duty
of each chief to protect his people, all seem to be too proud to seek unity
with other chiefs, thinking this might indicate a sign of weakness and
itself invite attack .
Therefore, it could have been truthfully reported to either Asia or
Europe any time during the last thousand years that the widespread
segmentation and attending disunity among the Africans made them
easy to conquer and dominate .
Some of these six hypothetical items would he valid as conclusions
regarding a general situation only after the widespread collapse of
strong African states, when small splinter states spread over the continent
like an epidemic . But, as we shall see, the united resistance of the Blacks
to white Asian invasions had been going on before recorded history
began ; and, despite all the segmentations and endless invasions from
the north, south, east and west, there were black nations that kept up
the resistance of five thousand years right down into the 20th century .
We shall review some of these in the chapters which follow .


Oldest Daughter: Egypt

region of ancient Ethiopia . The six cataracts of the Nile were the great
watermarks in the heartland of the Blacks from whence African culture
spread over the continent, but nowhere was it pronounced as in Egypt .
This northern sector of the Ethiopian empire had been the object of
world attention from the earliest times . The fact was that it was in the
center of the crossroads from all directions leading into Africa from Asia
and Europe . This also explains how the Asians came to occupy and
control a fourth of Egypt (Lower Egypt) before the unification of the
"Two Lands" in the third millenium B .C . With the relentless spread of
the desert and the attending scarcity of arable land, there was a heavier
concentration of Africans in the Nile delta and valley, the areas with the
- richest soil in the empire . The great agricultural system that was
developed along the overflowing Nile was one of the sources of the
wealth to support the great cultural advances . The other was the gold
mines below the First Cataract. This was also the magnet that drew
Caucasian peoples from many lands . As these increased in number and
variety, the undermining of black power was accelerated .
The melting pot of the races began around the northern perimeter .
The end result was always the same : The Blacks were pushed to the
bottom of the social, economic and political ladder whenever and
wherever the Asians and their mulatto offsprings gained control . This
Northern Chem
(Lower Egypt)
-After 3100 B.C .


(Northern Ethiopia)
-Upper Egypt After 3100 B .C.
Thebes .
Nekheb ∎
Before the Unification of the "Two Lands"

-Ethiopia's Borders
circ. 3500 B.C.
New Ethiopian Border
after the loss of Egypt
White Power Centers
in Lower Egypt
Capital Cities of the
Cities after Chem
became Egypt
30 °
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter: Egypt

scheme of weakening the Blacks by turning their half-white brothers
against them cannot be overemphasized because it began in the early
times and it became the universal practice of whites, and is still one of
the cornerstones in the edifice of white power . The white Asians were
generally very proud of their sons by black women . But these black
mothers remained slaves, while their mulatto sons and daughters were
born free and, moreover, classified as "white ."' As such, they formed a
social class that, while never recognized as equal with the "real whites,"
had just about all the other privileges of free men .
The picture was generally the same from about 4,000 B.C . onward .'
In the Asian-held areas in the north, the Blacks had hard choices to
make. As elsewhere on the continent, they had the choice of remaining
in their homeland and being reduced to the status of servants and
slaves; or if they were well-to-do members of the professional classes,
architects, engineers or skilled craftsmen, they could remain, become
integrated in Asian society, be classified as "white" and even hold high
positions ; or, finally, they could reject integration into Asian culture and
migrate southwards . This the great majority did . It is therefore not
without significance that even today a number of African tribes four
thousand miles south from Egypt still claim it as their ancestral homeland .
There were Blacks who neither fled before the Asian advance nor
submitted to enslavement . These, also rejecting amalgamation as the
process of transforming the race, stood their ground fighting back and
were generally wiped out . In short, the Africans held Upper Egypt
(South) while the Asiatics held Lower Egypt (North) .
Kurt Sethe, in attempting to reconstruct the prehistory of Egypt,
concluded that the division of the country between Africans in the
south and Asiatics in the north was due mostly to a split over religion .
According to this view, the Africans refused to accept the cult of Horus
that dominated the Nile delta . They, therefore, formed a "second
nation" in Upper Egypt and established their national religious shrines
at'Omnos, Thebes, Thines and Napata . Other scholars insisted that the
"Two Lands" meant that the Africans had simply separated themselves
from the Asians . These, unlike Sethe, do not inquire about the reasons .
1 . Note that throughout this work I refer to time spans of 6,000 years,
5,000 years, 4,000 years, 3,000 etc . The variations depend on the time
span of the developments under discussion .
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter : Egypt

What actually happened in prehistoric times, however, was on such a
grand scale over long periods of time that even patterns of unwritten
history became clear and understandable : The Asians and Europeans
were entering in increasing numbers and pushing the Africans farther
and farther away from the Mediterranean, pushing them farther and
farther towards what became "Africa South of the Sahara" ; but the
Africans had taken their first firm stand within their Egypt, making it
"Two Lands," exactly as the Sudan is "Two Lands" today with the
Arabs and Colored Arabs in the North and Africans in the South . And
3 also for exactly the same reason : to escape white oppression . And the
Sudanese Blacks concentrated in the South for the same ancient reason :
To escape white and colored oppression .
z U

We are in the period of ancient history . The records of the times are
I °o unmistakable and the evidence is clear only when the archaeologists
>- M

have done their work well . In no area of the world have they been more
successful than in Egypt . It was the science of archaeology, along with

ancient historical records, that supported my viewpoint that the Africans,

while being either subjugated or pushed southwards, fought back in a
¢ Q

_long series of wars to regain their ancient homeland along the N
Mediterranean . As early as the end of the fourth millenium B.C ., and

even before the First Dynasty in Egypt, there are records of a great
o w G

African victory over the Asians in the north . 3 The Blacks had established

their Egyptian capital at Nekheb . The royal palace was just across the
x :aw

river at Nekheb . Thebes_ and Napata continued to be the cultural

centers of the black world .
a x
Y As the historic period opened in Egypt, it appeared that the Africans
w 0 m

were retaking the whole of their country . The Palermo Stone records .

victory after victory over the Asians . Finally, the great triumph came
when African king Menes defeated the Asians decisively and united all

Egypt under African rule again, beginning the historic First Dynasty . 3
Historians of ancient Egypt would do well to pause and ponder longer
over the question of the "Two Lands ." Those who are interested in the
truth about the black man's history would be compelled to dc; so . For the
most significant part of the black African's history developed in Egypt,
2 . Reference is made to the palettes and maceheads found at Hierakonopolis .
3 . There was in fact no "Egypt" before Menes_built Memphis .
6 4

The Destruction of Black Civilization
and the division of the country into "Two Lands"-one predominantly
Asian and the other African-marked the first great stage of the
unending pressures that steadily forced the Blacks from the northern
areas . But for countless centuries the greater region was held by the
Blacks . This was the southern region called "Upper Egypt ."
It seems quite clear that this see-saw conflict between Africans and
Asians covered centuries back into prehistory, just as it was to continue
intermittently for nearly five thousand years after Menes. Indeed, the
Zanzibar Revolution and the purely racial conflict in the Sudan are
simply a present-day continuity of the ancient struggle between the
invaders and the invaded .
After the Asian North was subdued, the African capital city was
moved from Nekheb in the South to the North where the "Two Lands"
met. Here astride what had been the boundary, the "Eternal City" of
Memphis was built, named for the king, and, like Thebes, became the
focal point of black power and one of the chief centers of African
civilization . In completing the building of Memphis, Menes's nephew
apparently believed that he was making the final settlement of the
Asian problem, and that this capital city would stand forever . The
massive fortification system built to control the Asians stood for centuries .
The Africans' literal belief in immortality was reflected in their building
and burial arrangements . The early three-chambered, brick mastabas
foreshadowed the later pyramids that were to surround the city like
watchmen and form a line of march from there into the Giza desert .
During one of the longest reigns in history, Menes brought about the
kind of stability and innovations in administration that not only provided
a solid foundation for a first dynasty, but also the economic and social
conditions necessary for the more uniform expansion of religion, the
arts, crafts and the mathematical sciences . Here, too, is where Mesopotamia, Palestine and Greece, although not as advanced, may have made
cultural contributions to the Africans and received much from them in
return .


The Greek contribution was the greatest . It was accidental, one of
those accidents of history that turns out to be highly important . In this
case the Greeks unwittingly applied the second name of the City of
Menes (Memphis), "Aigyptos" to the whole country . For Memphis was
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter : Egypt

also called Hikuptah, or the "Mansion of the Soul of Ptah," the godprotector of the city . From the Greek "Aigyptos" Memphis became
Egypt, and Egypt became the name of the "Two Lands," extending from
the Mediterranean to the First Cataract .
There was no "Egypt" before the black king from whose name it was
indirectly derived . Before that the country was called Chem or Chemi,
another name indicating its black inhabitants, and not the color of the
soil, as some writers have needlessly strained themselves in asserting .
Indeed, the strong predilection of both Europeans and white Asians
to replace the names of other peoples and places with their own
terminologies was at once a blessing and a curse in the history of the
Blacks . Not knowing the racist twist that modern history was to take,
these early historians, geographers and travelers reported what they
found and described peoples in their own terms of speech . In doing so,
they established beyond question that the Blacks were the first Egyptians
and the builders of that ancient civilization . For it was these early writers,
and not the Blacks, who made it clear that although the invading EuroAsknns had firmly established themselves in about one-fourth of
Northern Ethiopia (Lower Egypt) as early as the fourth millenium B .C .,
the Blacks with equal firmness held all the rest from the twenty-ninth
North parallel to the tenth South . It was the whites, not the Blacks, who
called Africa the "Land of the Blacks" until Asian and European
invasions made it expedient to change this to mean "African countries
not yet taken over by Caucasians" ; and later to "Africa South of the
Sahara ." Even this has to be qualified now as the whites dominate
South Africa . The early whites-again, not the Blacks-not only defined
all Upper Egypt as black to distinguish it from predominantly white
Lower Egypt, but they settled the matter for posterity by calling Egypt
the Thehald and the Blacks Thebans because Thebes (Nowe) was the
oldest and greatest center of black civilization .
The "curse" referred to above concerns the amazing success of
modern writers in so blotting out, obscuring or reinterpreting the earlier
writers on Africa so that the actual role of the Blacks in their own land
was practically erased from memory . Their strategy of silence worked,
and it must have worked more successfully than they could have
dreamed. The Great Silence even fell over the monumental fact that
the Blacks themselves started the whole dynastic system in Egypt about
3100 B.(, : ., and that the great civilization of world acclaim developed
after these black regimes began . Greek and Arabic names and the
6 6

The Destruction of Black Civilization
accepted "Caucasoid" features in the conventional style of royal portraits
all furthered the great deception .
There was also the external influence on early African speech and
writing in Egypt . As more and more Asians moved into Upper Egypt
after the unification of the "Two Lands," the mingling of the two
peoples not only produced a new breed of Egyptians, but also an
increasingly Afro-Asian language and writing system that differed
markedly from the original African writing as it was developed below
the First Cataract .
Developments in Asia and Europe one and two thousand years after
the "golden age" of black civilization helped to obscure that civilization
or paint it over as an entirely Euroasian achievement . Our task is to
begin the removal of this false encrustation, hardened as it is by two
thousand years of unchallenged growth . The time continuum in the
history of the Blacks is highly important in reference' to the state of
civilization in the lands from which the invading groups came during the
first thousand years of black ascendency in Egypt and Southern Ethiopia
(the Sudan) . The record is quite clear that the ineursive groups were
largely tent-dwelling nomads . They had no tradition of great cities with
imposing temples, obelisks, pyramids or, indeed, stone masonry at all .
In particular, one should note the number of centuries after Thebes and
Memphis before their ancient cities were founded :
Nowe (Thebes) Prehistory
Memphis 3100 B.C .
Rome (Village) 1000 B.C .
Rome (Town) 250 B .C .
Athens (Village) 1200 B .C .
Athens (City) 360 B.C .
Antioch 400 B .C .
Jerusalem 1400 B .C .
Babylon 2100 B .C .
In short, what great contributions did these roaming nomads have to
make to an already highly developed black civilization? Since even
Jerusalem was not in existence, what people in Lower Egypt came from
a country with a city as great as Thebes or Memphis?
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter: Egypt

It was the beginning of a new era in the history of the Blacks when an
Ethiopian king turned the course of the Nile river by building a great
dam at the border between Upper and Lower Egypt for the site of the
new capital that was to bear his name .
For generations Memphis was almost entirely an all-African city, with
white Asian villages slowly growing up around the outskirts . For the
Asians were a very smart and very cunning people . Once conquered,
they feigned complete and humble acceptance of African rule . Far from
showing the slightest signs of any feeling of racial superiority, they were
such masters of the art of dissembling that they could hoodwink the
Africans, often under the guise of brotherhood, by capitalizing on their
often dark complexions, similar institutions, intermarriages, and mixing
with the black population, generally, as far as possible . That all this was
the direct route to repeated Asian ascendency on the continent few
Africans seemed to see . For they were, as a race, too ready to forgive and
forget past evils committed by foreigners ; whereas, on the other hand, a
fellow African tribe could easily become a "traditional enemy" and
continue as such for so many generations that no one could remember
what the original quarrel was all about!
The Blacks, then, were apparently unconcerned about the Asian
villages springing up just outside of Memphis, the largest one rapidly
developing across the river on the right bank . This community was to
become the Asian city of Fostat that would challenge the supremacy of
the capital city and eventually help to change its African character and
cause its final destruction . Yet what I have just stated so briefly occurred
only after nearly three thousand years of glorious history . It remained
the capital and one of the greatest cities of Egypt and the world, from
the First to the Twentieth Dynasty when it yielded to Thebes again . But
it was still a great city when Alexander the Great arrived in 332 B .C. Its
death-knell was sounded only when Arab tribes overran the land and
Cairo rose to overshadow it .
The Second and Third Dynasties were also African ; most writers will
not flatly state this . They generally designate these dynasties as "Thinite,"
"Memphite" or "Followers of Seth ." One has to know that the First
Dynasty was African and "Memphite" or "Thinite," so called after the
name of their sacred city Thinis, and the cults of Seth and Amon were,
African. Thai the Fourth Dynasty was indigenous is equally clear . These
were the chief pyramid builders, the Great Pyramid being the largest
The Arabs settled in a tiny village called Fostat on the outskirts of the great city of
Memphis, the pride of the Black world . From little Fostat now behold the Arab
city of Cairo where ancient city of Memphis once stood!
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter : Egypt

and tallest building on earth until modern times . It was built during the
reign of Khufu, 2590-67 B .C .
Khufu's nephew, Khafre, carried on and built the second Great
Pyramid . But he went farther . He built the Great Sphinx and, as though
he intended to settle the question of his racial identity for all ages to
come, he had his African features so boldly and clearly carved into a
portrait statue that not even a fool could seriously doubt that his mighty
monarch was a "Negro ." He was therefore among the first to break with
the classical Caucasoid stereotypes in Egyptian portraits .
Having determined what periods Africans were referred to as
"Thinites," "Memphites," "Thebans," "Cushites," "Libyans," "Ethiopians," "Nubians," etc ., a major problem in African history was near
solution . Some of the disguising masks were thus removed . But much
still remained to be done in developing guidelines to identification
because the work of effacing the black man's role in world history was so
thoroughly done over for so many centuries that it is amazing how so
universal a concensus was reached by Caucasian writers in almost every
Yet it should have occurred to some of these writers that painstaking
research would later reveal all that they had tried to conceal about black
civilization builders . I must repeatedly point out that some of the bias is .
not deliberate, but often so deeply rooted that the white scholar is
totally unaware of it . One of these, for example, was Sir Flinders W .M.
Petrie, one of the greatest archaeologist-historians of Egypt . He tried so
hard to be scientifically "objective ." Yet when he unearthed a famous
king or queen who was unmistakably "Negro," he seemed to be quite
puzzled. But, like most of his fellow investigators, some of his best
thinking was set in motion for a "rational" explanation . Thus the find of
Sneferu's black queen, Mertitefs, indicated that the "royal wife might be
of an inferior race and not of the `high type .'"
But the guildelines I found useful in identifying "who was who" are :
(1) Knowing the terms used when referring to early Africans ; (2) noting
rulers whom the writers concede to be Africans or "persons with
marked `Negroid' features" and tracing this line to succeeding dynasties,
i .e ., the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc . ; (3) noting what kings or queens in later
dynasties claimed an African ruler of an earlier period as their ancestor,
and, accordingly, venerated and "worshipped" ; (4) similarly, what kings
and queens t ok the name of ancient black rulers and built temples and
monuments to perpetuate their memory ; (5) noting the evidence in
By the Fourth Dynasty the Blacks, who were the first brick and stone masons on
earth, had begun to build at Giza the same style of pyramid building that had
been characteristic of Southern Ethiopia from the earliest times . The Great
Pyramid remained the tallest building in the world for over four thousand years .
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter . Egypt

stone, inscriptions on monuments and steel of various kinds; (6) noting
to what race did the invading rulers "from the South" belong, and over
what kind of people did they rule below the First Cataract ; (7) and,
finally, noting the unearthed statues and portraits of kings and queens
of Egypt who were "pure" Africans (unless physical anthropologists now
wish to change their criteria for determining "race") . These are a few
guidelines to trace early Egyptians as Black Africans .
The fact of black rulers, however, is not as important as the fact of an
indigenous black population from which they sprang. For these early
Blacks were themselves a great people, excelling on many fronts from a
line of builders so distant in the past that it seems to have extended into
the stone ages . It was a society of scientists, scholars, organized religions
with organized priesthoods, mathematicians, scribes, architects, engineers, standing armies and generals, stone and brick masons, carpenters,
artists, sculptors, cloth makers, slaves, farmers, teachers, gold and
silversmiths, blacksmiths, and so on, through the widest spectrum of an
advanced society .
Africa as the "Cradle of Civilization" meant exactly that . These Blacks
developed one of the oldest written languages . The Egyptian language
was an African language with later Asiatic influence similar to that of
Arabic or the African language known as Swahili. And it was as totally
destroyed and replaced by a non-indigenous tongue as were other
African creations . Nothing better marked the increasing cleavage
between the Blacks and their "half-brothers" beyond the cataracts than
this linguistic nationalism, the refusal of the retreating Blacks to use the
Asianized Egyptian tongue .


The recent revival of "Black is beautiful" is no more than that, a
revival . The great majority of ancient Blacks took great pride in their
color ; and their resistance to amalgamation may be so interpreted . For
one thing they had observed in Egypt was that a dynasty, beginning as
all-black, could remain unbroken over generations and still in the end
become near-white in color with not a black face in the royal lineage .
This two-way process of intermingling and direct aggression meant
victory fo`r the white Asians in the end . They were already within the
country as "Egyptians" when the conquering hordes from their various
The Great Sphinx, the portrait statue of the Black Pharaoh Khafre (African
identity generally disguised by historians with the name "Cephren") . He was the
first ruler to break from the classical tradition of portraying all important Blacks
with pronounced "Caucasoid" features . Acting as though he foresaw what the
trend of history would be, Khafre had his racial identity carved in this solid rock
for the ages . Note, however, the long and arduous labor that was required for
them to chip away that massive flat nose!
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter: Egypt

homelands swept in . Many were nationalistic Egyptians and, as such,
fought the invaders along with the Africans ; others, though born in
Egypt also, were loyal to their fathers' native countries and sided with
their armies .
Since the first to be called Egyptians exclusively were half-African
and half-Asian, their general hostility to their mothers' race was a social
phenomenon that should not be passed over lightly, even though that
development followed a universal pattern and, therefore, was not
peculiar to the Egyptians . Its nature is essentially opportunist, a quest
for security, recognition and advancement by identifying with and
becoming a part of the new power elite of the conquerors. The invading
conquerors not only capture and control all political and economic
power by military might, but, even though they might be nomadic
barbarians, they generally claim to be from a higher civilization and,
therefore, reinforce the myth of being superior in fact, and not just
because of military conquests .
Even if no such claim is made, the new ruling classes and all members
of their race are superior vis-a-vis the indigenous or conquered people .
Expediency and survival itself dictates loyalty and faithful service to the
Asian masters in the regions over which they had gained control, first in
Northern Egypt . This meant that even in the beginning, "siding with the
Asians" was not solely determined by whether one was a half-breed or a
full-blooded African . Blacks who did not choose to flee south but
remained under Asian rule, even if enslaved, worked harder to gain
recognition and acceptance than any other group . Indeed, so anxious
were some of these early Blacks for "integration" with the Asians that
they themselves did most in creating the new breed of Egyptians who
were to become their mortal enemies . For in an all-out effort to appease
the invaders, they freely gave their daughters and other desirable
females as gifts to become concubines, thus speeding up the reproduction
processes on an ever-widening scale . Nor did this lessen the wholesale
capture of women in raids on African villages for the same purpose and
for export to Asia .
Reference was made to the race of the "Egyptians' mothers ." For in
Egypt, as elsewhere, it was a one-way sexual process . The "master race"
always kept its own women "sacred" and secluded behind the walls of
their homes . They were not allowed to go outside except under guard .
African wo nen had no such restrictions or protection . They were fair
game for the men of all races, and for them it was always open season .

The Destruction of Black Civilization
Many black women preferred death by suicide . Of these, too, history
does not sing. The "master race," then, while loudly proclaiming a
strange doctrine of "racial purity" for itself, has been the world's leader
in bastardizing other peoples . And it has been done on a grand scale in
the United States, in South America, in East and South Africa . And so
it was in Egypt .
The evolution of the Egyptians as a nationality group is as interesting
as their anti-African attitude, although the latter differs not at all from
that of many mixed breeds with African blood elsewhere . It has been
stated that the original Egyptians were black, half-African and half
Asian . This general racial pattern changed, however, as the centuries
passed along and more and more white conquerors, their followers and
the other whites were attracted to the "Bread Basket on the Nile"-Jews,
Syrians, Hittites, Persians, Babylonians, Assyrians, . Greeks, Turks, Arabs,
Romans, et al . Intermarriages between conquerors and conquered continued along with concubinage as a national institution . The direct
result was that more and more Egyptians became lighter and near-white
in complexion . In short, they did, in fact, become more Asian in blood
than African . Yet this upper ruling class of near-whites was at no time
more than a fourth of the population . For until the Islamic "flood"
which began in the middle of the seventh century A.D ., the vast
majority of the Egyptians were what modern scholars like to characterize
as "Negroid ."4
But what has been referred to as a "social phenomenon" was in fact a
development among the half-breeds everywhere that ran counter to
what would be normally expected, if not contrary to nature itself . This
was the outright rejection of one's mother and her people and a cleaving
to the father and his people . While I do not know whether the overwhelming love which Africans generally have for their mothers is any
greater than that among other peoples, it is certainly so marked that it
has been a matter of comment by many writers . Some of the principal
reasons why the half-breeds turned against the Blacks and sought
integration with the Asians have been pointed out . These applied to the
Blacks as well as to the new breed . All sought security, advancement
4 . The unmixed Blacks in Egypt I am still designating as African . The
Mulattoes, then as now, generally objected to being called Africans .
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter: Egypt

and social prestige by ingratiating themselves with the current ruling
classes . But the half-breeds had the inside track and all of the advantages .
First of all, they were mainly the sons and daughters of white and
European-Asian fathers . These fathers recognized them as such and, in
general, proudly . And since they claimed superiority over the Africans,
their half-African offsprings considered themselves to be a superior
breed also . These Afro-Asian offsprings were given preferential treatment, positions of authority, wealth according to the status of their
patrilineal family, and an education that could draw on Asian culture as
well as the highly advanced African civilization in Upper Egypt and
southwards to the "Land of the Gods ."
Another situation that was a most potent factor in the half-breeds'
attitude towards their mothers' race was that, more often than not, their
mothers were concubinary slaves .
This meant that the half-breed was introduced into the lowest level of
African life even from birth. Concubinage was so general that it
overshadowed the smaller number of African women who were the
legitimate wives of Asians . These African wives were the exception,
generally coming as they did from powerful upper classes, the noble or
royal families . In such cases it did not seem to matter at all how black
they were . But since most of the "new Egyptians" were originally sons
and daughters of slave mothers and "upper class" fathers, they tended
to . be ashamed of their mothers and sought self-realization on their
fathers' side . Furtherniore, the slave mother had no claim on the
children she bore . They belonged to the Asian father who could and
generally did consider them as free-born due to their Asian blood .
To prove how truly Asian they were, the mixed Egyptians made
hatred of Africans a ritual, and tried to surpass the whites in raiding for
the slaves in all-African areas . Various Afro-Eurasians who became
Egyptian kings declared "eternal warfare" against the Blacks and vowed
to enslave the entire race . Hope in this connection could have developed
from the fact that while many races were represented among captured
slaves, the Africans constituted the largest number .
Relying wholly on the emerging concept of innate superiority of
Europeans and Asians, these people everywhere created a class system
that made their bastard offsprings superior to all Blacks, and in status
next below themselves.
7 6

The Destruction of Black Civilization
The system operated in the twentieth century the same as it did in
earlier times . The Afro-Dutch "Coloureds" of South Africa fully illustrate
most of the points made about Egyptians . The Coloureds' hatred of
Africans seems to be even more thoroughgoing than that of the whites
in South Africa . Because of their Dutch blood, they too had been given
special privileges, a higher social and economic status than the Blacks,
and a completely separate society . Education and civil rights denied the
Blacks were theirs ; the best available jobs for non-whites were theirs .
But above all, they had the magic of the half-white skin that, in itself,
automatically put them above the Blacks . Some of these "Coloureds"
become hysterical if reminded of their Bantu of "Kaffir" blood . The
lightest ones simply deny having any African blood .
Yet sometimes nature itself, as though disgusted with these ridiculous
pretensions, plays a joke on some of the very lightest husbands and
wives by presenting them with a black baby, a throwback from black
ancestors .
The most charitable thing that can be said about the racism of the
Dutch Boers and their Cape Coloured offsprings is that they were
ignorant of even the names of great African leaders, not to mention the
great civilization they had built just north of where the Dutch first
landed .
But the Assyrians, Hebrews, Greeks and Romans could make no such
claim to support the myth of Caucasian superiority . For nothing seems
clearer from ancient records than that the whole ancient world knew of
nothing more ancient than the black man's civilization .
The real challenge was standing there in monuments of stone which
the Blacks had built on a scale that had withstood all passing ages .
To meet this challenge, the Asians and their Afro-Asian offsprings set
about to do three main things : (1) They destroyed everything left by the
Africans that indicated African superiority . (2) Where the temples,
monuments, etc ., were of such beauty and durability that destruction
was less desirable than claiming the achievements as their own, African
inscriptions were systematically erased and replaced with Asian and
new Egyptian inscriptions that gave to themselves the credit for whatever
achievements there were . Sometimes the inscriptions were so deeply
engraved that effacement was impossible ; so the workmen would have
to conceal these by building stone casings around them .
The early African builders had been most exasperating, leaving their
statues everywhere-flat noses, thick lips and all . Hundreds of statuettes
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter : Egypt

were carved in various dynasties . These could be thrown away . But
what to do with the huge, monumental statues that were lined up
outside of the most famous temples? The problem was solved by
"passing" those Egyptian rulers who merely had "Negroid" features .
Many of those with all-African faces simply had their heads knocked off .
All to no lasting avail . The facts of history could not be completely
changed .
One troublesome fact was that most of the greatest kings and queens
of Egypt were Black Africans ; so great, indeed, that their names were
richly spread over pages that glorified the Egyptian past-their names,
but not their African identity . In history these Blacks are simply
Egyptians, and not Cushites, Ethiopians, or Nubians . This is still another
technique for deliberately "losing track" of African history . But the
archaeologists' spades just kept turning up statuettes and some
remarkable portraits that frustrated some scholars while' others felt
challenged and replied with a heavy artillery of misleading words and
phrases . Regardless of what the field investigators found, the main work
of reconstructing African history in the twentieth century is still in the
hands of those who degraded it, white hands who still have the power
to shape it as they will . (3) Finally, the great revolt of white slaves
(Mamelukes) in 1250 A .D ., and their murderous onslaughts against
their Turk and Arab masters ended forever the general enslavement of
whites, and thereafter led to a concentration on the enslavement of
only Blacks . This changed the course of history and came to make the
myth of racial superiority-inferiority, master and slave, appear to be a
visible reality . Could there be any question about it? Even the slaves
would realize that their actual situation was one of inferiority . And after
centuries of bondage, the slaves generally came to believe that they
were, in fact, inferior beings, and that their masters, by the very
arrangements of life, were superior . For whether in Asia, Europe, South
America, the United States or the West Indies, the story was the same :
The essential links with their past were broken . All knowledge of
former greatness was lost . Even their kinship and family relationships
were destroyed along with their true names . They were not regarded as
human beings . They became a race of outcasts hating themselves for
being alive . The Caucasian triumph was complete .
In the course of time, the Egyptians became more and more conscious
of their separate national and non-Asian identity as Egyptians . The term
"Asian," of course, covered numerous white nationality and ethnic

The Destruction of Black Civilization
groups . "Asian blood" had no specific meaning . It might be Hebrew,
Mongolian, Arabic, Persian, Indian and so on . Egyptian nationalism
with its sense of independence could evolve all the more easily because
of this lack of exclusive identity with any one of their kindred nationalities .
Another important factor was the relatively unmixed Asians (and a
sprinkling of Europeans) who had been living in the country for so
many generations that they regarded themselves as Egyptians, owing no
loyalty to their native lands, but ready to fight as Egyptians when Egypt
was attacked or herself went to war . Here again we see additional
reasons why the Egyptians felt more Asian than African . They become
even clearer if we keep in mind that during all the centuries of Egyptian
evolution to a separate identity and nationhood, relentless warfare with
the Africans continued . As long as the Africans seemed resolved to
retake Egypt, no pharaoh could rest easily . From the record, extending
over several thousand years, it seems that the Blacks intended to
reconquer Egypt as Menes had done or fight on forever . They seemed
to take their most devastating defeats as mere temporary setbacks, and
always invaded or attempted to invade Egypt again and again (and
again, note the very different Western version) .
Is this one of the principal reasons the Egyptians hated them so much?
Was the mass enslavement of Africans a part of a scheme to break the
power and end the eternal threat from the now southern "Land of the
I am, of course, fully aware that the same ancient records may be read
and interpreted in such a way that one would think that most of the
invasions were one-way from Egypt into the all-black countries below
the First Cataract, and that, indeed, the Africans were no match for the
mighty Egyptian armies, but generally turned tail and fled . In this and a
hundred other instances I simply read the record differently . The great
chain of defense fortifications the Egyptians built facing south at the
First Cataract were hardly built to prevent themselves from invading
the black empire .
As late as the Twelfth Dynasty, records still refer to wars against the
"Asian invaders" and to defense measures such as building walls on the
eastern frontier . They had been "expelled en masse" from the rich delta
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter: Egypt

region in 2040 B .C . 5 But they always returned, if not as conquering
warriors, then as peaceful traders or friendly migrants seeking a home .
It should also be remembered that Egypt was not always the innocent
object of aggression, but was herself often the invading aggressor in
Asia . She also enslaved many Asians and marched them back to
Egypt-men, women and children . It can be said with certainty,
therefore, that some of the many invasions of Egypt were invited or
provoked by Egypt's own imperialistic adventures . Yet they may well
have been counter-moves to check the constant invasions from these
regions .
The African masses caught it from all directions as their own leaders
progressively became "Caucasian" Hamites and Semites, and as many
who were unmistakably full-blooded Africans became as predatory as
were their known enemies 6It appears that from time immemorial, stark
greed, the desire for wealth, has overridden all humane considerations .
Greed has served as a kind of anesthesia, deadening humane sentiments
and breaking the bonds of affection that relates man to man . Greed was
triumphant in Egypt from ancient times down into our own century .
Egypt was the major slave exchange center in Africa . Nubia (the
Northern Sudan) was not only the chief source of supply for slaves, who
were marched up the Second Cataract, but it was also the main source
of gold, ivory, ostrich feathers, precious stones of many kinds, ebony
and animal skins. These goods enriched Egypt in her expanding
international trade . A hostile Egypt now stood between the black world
and international commerce .
But all had not been going well in the land . There had been civil wars,
redivision of the country, reunification again, decentralization, a breakup
into autonomous monarchies and back to unification once more . These
ups and downs seem to be according to the strength or weakness of the
leadership in any given period, or the role played by the conquerors in
unifying or failing to unify the country .
5 . This the the generally accepted view ..I note elsewhere that it was
not a mass expulsion of Asians .
6. One lesson of history is quite clear : One's own leaders may be as
unjust, inhuman and as brutal as strangers, often more so .



The long, long stretch of the centuries into milleniums made it easy to
delete some of the most significant developments in those early ages in
Egypt . The emergence of great leaders and long periods of remarkable
achievements were followed by weak leaders and long periods of
national disorganization and chaos in such amazing cycles that it seems
that some relentless socio-political law was operating in the land .
Centralized government, first instituted by Menes, always collapsed as
civil war spread over the provinces and constituent kingdoms . One of
the worst and most fateful periods of crisis was during the Seventh,
Eighth, Ninth and Tenth dynasties, 2181-2040 B .C .
What happened during this period of political anarchy is typical of the
unproclaimed processes that slowly but steadily changed both the
political and ethnic character of Egypt and, in the end, that of the allblack Sudan as well . During this period, as in many others, the Blacks
played a leading role in expediting their own downfall-a fact as
important in their history as anything else . In Egypt it was an almost
endless power struggle both within the royal lineages on the national
and provincial levels and between the various provinces . The civil strife
became more intense and bitter as the largest and strongest provinces,
such as Thebes, tried to force the others back into a state of national
unity . The trouble was that too many nomarchs (chiefs) were trying to do
the same thing, each ambitious to become the Pharaoh of all Egypt at
the very least, and all Ethiopia if possible (Egypt and the Sudan) .
Hell reigned in the center of the empire (Upper Egypt) for 141
years-one hundred and forty-one years of retrogression and destruction . Both ends of the empire broke away from the center . The northern
end, white Lower Egypt, became independent again and more and
more whites spread over Upper Egypt, taking full advantage of the
general upheaval, and promoting it by forming alliances with various
provincial chiefs in the warfare against others . Since Lower Egypt also
had internal strife among its now independent provinces, delta chiefs
did not hesitate in accepting the invitations of black princes to form
alliances and lead troops into Upper Egypt . Asians also marched across
the desert from Libya where they had also replaced the indigenous
Blacks and were now the dominant population .
The steady transformation from black to brown to white becomes
even clearer if it is remembered that after the unification of the Two
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter: Egypt 81
Lands, the whites of Lower Egypt had every legal right to travel and
settle in black Upper Egypt . And while there was always a general
opposition, there had been a steady infiltration from the beginning .
They, like their Libyan kinsmen, always came in a manner that never
caused immediate alarm : small numbers spreading out, and then
gradually forming separate communities next to an African village,
town or city . They became an integral part of life in the provinces,
actively supporting the local chiefs (nomarchs), marrying into their
families and, by so doing, in time becoming legitimate chiefs themselves .
The Asian power base was thus firmly established in provinces, and
established so slowly and without fanfare that it appeared to be an
imperceptible development . The same changes had been taking place
on the national level in some of the royal families .
But the biggest changes in the racial character of Egypt always
occurred during the crisis periods of political decentralization and civil
disorder when the whites came in hordes and spread over the country .
The already established Asian communities served as magnets, but the
overflow of settlers caused the building of numerous new communities .
They could now move in unchallenged . They came in not only from the
Delta and Libya, but from Asia also . These were not military invasions,
but invading settlers . They were like John the Baptist, the forerunners .
They prepared the way and made it easy for all the invading armies that
came later from Asia and Europe . These could now count on cooperation
and welcome from the white population already in Egypt .
A century and a half of this followed . A pause and reflection are
required here if the full significance of what has been set forth above is
to be grasped . Yet the picture need not be as confusing as many writers
have made it by the simple expedient of omitting salient facts . Among
these are the following : (1) The collapse of centralized authority from
Memphis not only enabled Lower Egypt to become independent again,
but it also meant that this predominantly Asian region was in the same
state of disruption as the rest of the country . (2) Kings in Lower Egypt,
ruling from Avaris or Sais, often claimed to be kings or pharaohs of all
Egypt without having gained control of the whole country, just as kings
in Upper Egypt, ruling from Thebes or Memphis, made similar claims
during the same period without having gained control over the whole
country or even all of Upper Egypt . This point is highly important ; for
what it .,means is that there were periods when both white and black
aspirants claimed to be pharaohs of Egypt at the same time when none
8 2

The Destruction of Black Civilization
actually had effective control over the nation . (3) Writers, knowing this
well enough, have nevertheless generally presented the whites and
Afro-Asians (classified as "white") as the Egyptian pharaohs, while
ignoring the African pharaohs altogether . Their defense, when pressed,
is that the African pharaohs are indicated as Thebans, Memphites, etc .,
satisfied, as previously pointed out, that the use of these terms is a part
of the "blackout" of black history . (4) The periods during which the
Asian incursions were greatest, such as 2181-2040 B .C ., should be
stressed because these population pressures caused a steady withdrawal
of non-integrating Blacks southward below the First Cataract . (5) To
overlook this early separatist movement among the Blacks is to neglect
one of the most important keys to the fuller understanding of black
Egyptian history .
But just as the Blacks had withdrawn in large numbers from Lower
Egypt as it became more and more white and began to settle beyond
what became the border between Lower and Upper Egypt, so now they
had been moving from place to place in Upper Egypt in a futile effort to
escape from the ever pressing whites . These were the Blacks who finally
joined others in the South (Nubia) .
Nubia, therefore, revolted and became independent during the same
period of general collapse at the center . But the compelling reasons, as
stated elsewhere, appear to have been resistance not only to the
increasing Asian power in Upper Egypt but also to the African and
Afro-Asian pharaohs whose integration policies promoted the spread of
this foreign power in what had been an important region of their
homeland. It was black separatism and racism without apology . It was
even something more than a resistance movement against the political
domination of foreigners and the social degradation of the Blacks that
always followed, but it was a stubborn resistance to the extinction of the
race itself through amalgamation . These were the first of the race for
whom Black was in fact beautiful, and not just a catching slogan of the
day .
The expansion of "white power" from the delta into Upper Egypt had
been going on slowly long before the "age of weak kings ." They had
been appointed as ministers, court officials of various kinds, trade
commissioners, army officers and soldiers . The ninety-year reign of Pepi
11, the longest in history, was in their favor . For while Pepi had been a
strong leader and a mighty king during the first fifty years of his reign,
the general upheaval began when he had become too old to govern or
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter : Egypt 83
even know what was going on in the country . This uncommonly long
reign made the Sixth Dynasty the introduction to the era of chaos . This
was the period of simultaneous dynasties of Asian, Libyan, and Theban
"pharaohs" and several different capitals . There were so many kings
during the Eighth, Ninth and Tenth dynasties with very short "reigns"
that many of their names are unknown .
Finally, the line of African kings ruling from Thebes first overcame
the other powerful Asian dynasty in Upper Egypt that was centered at
Heracleopolis and proceeded with the awful task of uniting the empire
again . Strong rulers had begun to emerge again in 2133 B.C . So the
Eleventh Dynasty of the great Mentuhoteps began 93 years before the
Tenth Dynasty ended, a further illustration of points previously made .
Mentuhotep II was probably the greatest of Eleventh Dynasty kings .
It was he who undertook to settle the white Asian problem forever by
reversing the policy of integration and expelling them from Lower
Egypt . Historians of the period write that he did "expel the Asians" from
the Delta in 2040 B .C . This, too, is misleading . While he did indeed
conquer Lower Egypt again, and probably believed that reunification
with the black South would be easier if he first drove the Asians out, he
was now 1000 years too late for such a task . The Asians could not be
expelled en masse in any event, for all Lower Egypt was overwhelmingly
an Asian population and had been so for centuries beyond record .
Nobody knows at what point in time they became the dominant people
there . What Mentuhotep did was to put the government to flight, along
with its army and other known supporters . Besides, the Asians were
now dispersed all through the provinces of Upper Egypt .
The compelling reason for the reconquest of the Delta was always
economic. In fact "race" itself was an economic factor . When Asians
controlled, a commercial blockade kept Blacks from direct world trade
and international relations in general . Therefore, the second reunification
in 2040 B.C . ushered in another "golden age" in black history . African
ships of commerce sailed the seas again, nation-wide reconstruction was
pushed and the revival of learning, science, the arts and crafts marked
the Eleventh and Twelfth dynasties. The most important lesson the
black world could learn from its history is that there was an economic
development base for each and every advance .
Meanwhile, the Blacks concentrated in the South had firmly fixed the
dividing line between themselves and their brothers in Upper Egypt at
the First Cataract . This, too, meant war, because the South was the

The Destruction of Black Civilization
richest region in mineral resources . The long war against Nubia began
during the Eleventh Dynasty and went on year after year without
success. A very real problem now was the attitude of the black troops
from Thebes toward a war against their brothers in the South . In any
event, no progress in overcoming the South was made at all until the
power center at Thebes was moved to Al Fayyum in the Twelfth
Dynasty . Even then the war dragged on for another fifty years before
the region bordering on Egypt (called Lower Nubia) was brought under
Henceforth, the country from the First Cataract to the Mediterranean
was definitely called Egypt and the country from the First Cataract
southward was definitely called Ethiopia, Nubia, Cush etc .
The end of the Twelfth Dynasty in 1786 B .C . ended nearly three and
one half centuries of great leaders and, therefore, great progress . Yet,
once again, the cycle of disaster returned with the Thirteenth Dynasty .
Mental pygmies sat on the thrones once occupied by giants . Nearly two
centuries of internal strife and decay followed . Lower Egypt, of course,
had quickly become independent again for the third time . This meant
an increased and unrestricted flow of Asians into the country . A period
of turmoil was also the opportune time for great armed invasions .
Among these invaders were the Hyksos, the "Children of Isreal,"
according to the historian Josephus . This invasion of Egypt in 1720 B .C .
was ruthless and aimed at nothing less than the extermination of the
Egyptian people and their replacement by the Isrealites . They did not
succeed in this, but settled down to rule the country as the Thirteenth
and Sixteenth Dynasties and stayed on as a powerful influence for over
400 years .? The important point here is that Semites poured into Egypt
following its conquest by fellow tribesmen, and that this still further
advanced the Asiatic character of the Egyptians . Hyksos power was
broken during the Eighteenth Dynasty and many were expelled en
masse . They returned to Palestine and founded Jerusalem . Meanwhile,
7 . Some writers say that they were Arabs and that their rule lasted
about 250 years .
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter : Egypt
Egypt was developing into "The New Empire" and, during the same
dynasty in which the Hyksos had been expelled, she struck back by
conquering both the Hyksos homeland and Syria and extending those
conquests to the Euphrates . It should be noted that the greatest Hebrew
invasion of Egypt occurred about 600 years before Moses and the
Captivity .
One reason why the great issues in African history must be both
reviewed and expanded is that anyone who dares to challenge the prevailing and widely held viewpoints is in a position far more precarious
than that of little David facing the towering and mightily armed Goliath .
Here an almost universal army of giants, standing steadfastly in defense
of the "Africanist" ideologies they have developed, must be combatted .
To this end, I review positions already stated in order to be crystal clear,
and I expand by introducing additional facts on the same subject .
Indeed, I might be properly accused of overemphasizing one point on
which most scholars are already agreed : the great antiquity of African
civilization . But the greatest of all issues lies here in the general agreement
that at the very earliest period known to mankind, an African civilization
in the areas later called the Sudan and Egypt was fully developed, with
"all the arts of civilized life already matured," its beginning being placed
so far into the early history of the world that it is beyond the reach of
man. Since the most compelling evidence forced scholars to these
conclusions in recent times, the prevailing racist theories of history
created a very real dilemma : How, in view of civilization's beginning in
the Land of the Blacks, can one explain their role in world history?
Having successfully degraded the black race throughout the world and
supported the degradation with their "science" and religion, how may
one explain that this same black race was the first builder of the very
civilization of which the Caucasians themselves are heirs?
White scholarship solves such problems very neatly, and without a
blink of an eye . In this case they very simply put the white man in Africa
before the black man! And, apparently not feeling secure enough with
this, they overrode geography itself and "took Egypt out of Africa,"
making it a part of the Asian Middle East! Laughter and tragedy . For, of
course, a racism so extreme that it becomes ridiculous also becomes
8 6

The Destruction of Black Civilization
amusing, even though it is at the same time the tragedy of an unabated
twentieth century assault on the Blacks .
The discovery that the earliest civilization and, therefore, the most
advanced nation was in Africa led white scholars to do a quick turnabout .
Going far beyond transforming the indigenous people into whites, they
made Africa the birthplace of the entire human race and, to please God,
rushed back to Noah's sons again for a theory of racial origins and
dispersions-but now from Africa-over the earth . Western scholars, in
the absence of solid facts, do not hesitate to use myths and legends if
these serve their purposes . So in addition to the legend of how the
different races came to be and then migrated, we also have quoted the
Egyptian legend of how the god Turn assigned colors to the various
groups .
Sir Gardner, in his three volumes on ancient Egypt, follows the same
well-known line about Egyptians as Caucasians . In this he is quite in
step with most Western and Asian writers on the subject . Indeed, in
addition to the "evidence" cited above, he relies also on Caucasian
features in certain Egyptian monuments, portraits, etc . The head
carvings, pictures and other representations of people are quite true,
depending on the period in which the work was done . Was it done
during the long era of classical representations when all portraits were of
standardized form? The subject was idealized in an artistic attempt to
make him look quite different than he actually was . In fact, a true
representation of the individual was considered vulgar . The complementary question is, were the wall paintings and similar depictions done
during the periods of Caucasian ascendency (Asian and Afro-Asian)?
For during these periods both African and Afro-Asian ruling and upper
classes were classed as Asians or Caucasians and a sharp distinction was
made between themselves and the non-integrating Blacks . The stylized
paintings also show the Blacks in the same unvarying patterns . The first
known revolt against this ancient system of classical art came during
Ikhnaton's religious reforms in the fifteenth century B .C . 8
Anyone examining these early paintings will readily see why African
history is so confused and so often misleading . One example is a wall
8 . Khafre actually broke the tradition in the 4th dynasty . But the
"Negroid" features in the Sphinx did not change the classical style .
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter : Egypt 87
painting in a tomb at Thebes, the oldest city of the Blacks . The picture
shows "Negroes presenting tribute . . . " to the chief minister of Thutmose
III . If one did not know that all the Thutmoses were of an African
lineage, he would naturally conclude that Egyptian civilization was in
fact a Caucasian civilization, and the Blacks, where they appear on the
scene at all, were in a distinctly inferior role . Were not the paintings
conclusive evidence of this? Look at their scanty, almost barbarous


References have been made to Thebes, and they may have seemed to
be almost passing references . Yet Thebes was the most important single
city in the entire history of the black people . The whole series of lectures
could be properly based on Thebes . The history of Black Africa might
well begin at Thebes . For this was truly the "Eternal City of the Blacks"
that presented the most compelling evidence that they were the builders
of the earliest civilization in Chem, later called Egypt, as well as the great
civilization in the South . The foundation of Thebes, like the black state
of which it was the center, goes back so far in prehistory that not even a
general stone age period can be suggested .
This city is another example of what was meant when I suggested
earlier that research workers should not shun the "enemy" authorities
because they themselves inevitably present factual data that contravene
positions previously taken . I am not speaking about those scholars who
present the various conflicting theories and viewpoints of the different
schools of thought . It should be needless to say that this is desirable, or
that reference is not made to such writers . But reference was made to
those historians who espoused such doctrines as that of an indigenous
white African society before the arrival of the Blacks in Africa while,
later on, unwittingly showing that such could not have been the case .
So, almost all are forced by the evidence to concede in one place or
another,, and often in very guarded or ambiguous language, that : (1)
The Blacks were also called Thebans because (2) all Upper Egypt was
for centuries called the Thebald after its greatest city, Thebes, and its
people, the black Thebans ; (3) that the "Thebald" also referred to the
city itself as the intellectual center of Black Africa, the chief seat of
learning, of science, religion, engineering and the arts . "Thebald,"

The Destruction of Black Civilization
therefore, could mean the whole of black Egypt or the "University
City," depending on the inflection of the voice ; (4) that the Asian whites
were held rather firmly in the Delta region they occupied in Lower
Egypt until the unification of the Two Lands under Menes ; and (5) that
the much heralded "Egyptian dynasties" were African-founded and
were nothing more nor less than the African traditional lineage system,
matrilineal in character except when it was made patrilineal after Asian
conquests or the great Egyptian transformation .
I have said that the confusion in African history did not develop
accidentally or because of a long series of unfortunate circumstances .
The confusion seems to have been deliberately contrived . All specialists
on ancient Egypt whose works we have examined were quite familiar
with all the facts presented here . I present nothing here that would be
new to them, for so much of it is their own findings . Consider how much confusion and misinterpretations would have
been avoided if they had stated the well-established fact that the
Ethiopian empire still included most of Egypt even after the Asian
occupation of the Delta, that it extended southward over northern
Abyssinia (present-day Ethiopia), and that states such as Wawat, Nubia,
Cush, etc . were, like Egypt, lesser divisions of that vast empire . Even in
the works where this is presented in various and sundry ways, you will
not find a single map showing the extent of the Ethiopian empire .
To present maps of ancient Ethiopia, of course, would have defeated
all major efforts to destroy or disguise the most significant aspects of
African history . All honors must go to the ancient Greek and Roman
historians who did not seem to know what racism is, certainly not as it
developed in modern white civilization . They, in dealing with Africa,
simply "told it like it was ." Pliny, Herodotus, Diodorus, Erastosthenes,
Plutarch, et al ., along with the Bible, all refute the interpretations of
African history by modern Caucasians . They eagerly quote the ancient
historians as first-line authorities, but attack them whenever and
wherever their records upset the premises upon which modern racism is
built . In such cases the Western scholar feels so absolute and infallible in
his wealth-centered power and control over science and education that
on those points he does not choose to accept, he will dismiss the "Father
of History" with "Here Herodotus must be read with caution . He is
known to have made errors . He did not travel very much in Africa ;
or " . . .It is very likely that Diodorus was relying on oral tradition
here ; or " . . .They may have confused the Greek `Ethiopia' which
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter : Egypt

means `The Black Land' with 'Chem' (Egypt) which also means `The
Black Land,' for Pliny suggests that in the case of Egypt `black' refers to
the soil rather than the people And so it goes .
Throughout the study of the black man's history we may find
ourselves constantly misled or puzzled if we forget that practically all the
names and terms in use are not African names and terms, but Greek,
Roman, Arabic, Anglo-Saxon, etc . Some of the more recent preEuropean and pre-Asian-African names, however, have been rediscovered. One of these earlier names for Thebes was the No, the NaAmun of the Bible and ancient Hebrew writers . But the African name
was Wo'se and, like the Greek Thebald, referred to all Upper Ethiopia
or Upper Egypt . The Blacks also made the distinction between Wo'se,
the Thebald and Nowe (Thebes), the University City . Another point of
the highest importance here is that the African name for Thebes not
only comes from the South, as Nims points out, but the name itself is
the name of the imperial scepter of Ethiopia, a golden staff ribboned
with ostrich feathers at the top . Here, then, is a single name that, all by
itself, gives far-reaching insights into the history of the Blacks . And this
is why I have urged that, high up on the list of research fields yet to be
explored, there should be one devoted to the rediscovery of African
names and their meaning . For, obviously, much of the African past was
rather effectively blotted out by blotting out African names along with
other indexes to black achievements .
The determination of ancient African names and their meaning will
spearhead a real Black Revolution because it will lead directly to the
emancipation of our still enslaved minds . It will be the great intellectual
reawakening of a people whose world outlook through Caucasian eyes
has been dimmed . I cannot now, for example, switch to the use of the
African names I know in this discussion . I must continue to say Thebes,
not Wo'se or Nowe . The reasons are obvious . But if the kind of
suggested research is done, the next generation of black writers will be
using African terms freely and understandably, and with maps redrawn
to show places with their own original names .
But let us never forget the central fact about Thebes, not even for a
moment. For if the Blacks had never left a single written record of their
past greatness, that record would still stand, defying time, in the
deathless stones of Thebes, of her fallen columns from temples,
monuments, and her pyramids ; a city more eternal than Rome because
its foundation was laid before the dawn of history, and its plan was that
9 0 The Destruction of Black Civilization
copied by other cities of the world . If the Blacks of today want to
measure the distance to the heights from which they have fallen, they
need go no farther than Nowe (Thebes) .



The "Mother of Cities," as it was called, was one of the chief centers of
religion in Africa . The Blacks were a very religious people and had quite
a number of religious cities, each one under the special patronage of a
god, goddess or any number of deities . The gods and goddesses of
Thebes were among the most important because their city was so
important. Because religion to the Africans was far more than ritual
reflecting beliefs, but a reality reflected in their actual way of life,
religion from the earliest times became the dynamic force in the
development of all the major aspects of black civilization .
The belief in immortality was a simple matter of course, and beyond
the realm of debate .
This belief in life after death was the great inspiration for building on
so grand a scale, attempting to erect structures that would stand forever .
Necessity, therefore, gave birth to the mathematical sciences required
for building the amazing pyramids and the architectural designs for the
most elaborate system of temple-building the world has ever known . As
the City of Amon, the King of the Gods, and of his wife, the great
goddess Mut, the temples and monuments to them alone had to be on a
massive scale . There was also the war god of Thebes, the source of the
power of the mightiest armies, the proudest and most fearless warriors .
From this center of the empire alone, 20,000 war chariots could be put
into the field . The hierarchy of deities not only included numerous
lesser gods and goddesses, but also a long line of venerated former
kings, queens and ancestors . All of this not only inspired endless temple
building at Thebes but also a concentration on attaining the highest
standards of excellence. This in turn called for reflective thinking,
invention and discovery . Many of the temples were what we would call
colleges, as the different fields of study were temple-centered . Here
scholars from foreign lands came to study, and from here, religious ideas
and architectural designs spread abroad . The early Greeks and Romans
eagerly copied from both, reshaped them and made them integral parts
of an "original" Western culture . During periods of decline or conquests,
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter : Egypt

Europe and Asia seized and transported from Africa as much of the
artifacts of its civilization as they could . Cambyses, for example, as early
as the sixth century B.C ., hauled away over $100,000,000 of precious
historical materials from Thebes alone . Cambyses was only one of
countless thousands who invaded the tomb repositories of black history
during each of the many periods of foreign invasions and foreign rule .
For these tombs not only contained valuable historical records in
different forms, but also great treasures in gold and precious stones . In
these cases, the historical records were generallydestroyed incidentally,
and not deliberately . The raids on graves and the great tombs were for
the great treasures to be found there . But the stolen gold and other
treasures were of no importance when compared with the mass of
priceless historical materials that are scattered over Europe and Asia,
some in museums, some destroyed or thrown away, all from from the
heartland of black civilization . Today the descendants of the robbers
still smugly declare, "The Blacks never had any worthwhile history ; if so,
where are their records?"
The still interesting fact about Thebes is that many of its formerly
great temples were prehistoric ruins even five thousand years ago . The
most ancient temple at Karnak, for example, in what was the center of
Nowe, goes back beyond the reach of man's records . No other city on
earth ever had so many temples, and even today there are more ruins of
temples there than anywhere in the world . Because of the splendor of
their architectural designs and the colossal size of the structures, they,
like the pyramids, became wonders of the world . Religion was not-only
the immediate occasion for the development of art and architecture, but
it also inspired the drive for bigness, the grand design on a scale as huge
as human skill and effort could achieve . Nothing less was befitting of the
gods .
The keepers of the temples of Thebes and elsewhere became a
powerful priesthood, thus indirectly reducing the power and influence
of chiefs and kings who, in traditional Africa, derived their real powers
as the official intermediaries between the gods, sainted ancestors and
the people . If an African king or chief had any real political power, it
was acquired either by virtue of his religious functions or because of the
prestige of being a great general and victorious warrior. Otherwise, the
Council was the constitutional center of power .
Moreover, religion became the basis of political power in a subtle and
much more far-reaching sense . For back behind the impenetrable
9 2

The Destruction of Black Civilization
curtains of time, shrewd leaders saw the overriding mystery of religion
as a controlling force in the lives of men . It appears that in almost all
societies religion was recognized not only as the principal means of social
control, but the equally certain source of economic wealth and political
authority . From the chieftain's role of offering prayers and sacrifices to
the gods, the steps to his own claim of kinship with the deities were easy
enough. For who can gainsay one who is in exclusive communication
with the Almighty? Although divine kinship was never widespread
over the continent, it seems to be true that the ideas and practices of the
divine despots of the Orient did penetrate and influence a number of
African kingdoms .
The point of all this is that religion made the people submissive and
obedient, all the more so if their ruler was given a superhuman role such
as kinship with the gods and the protecting ancestors . For did this not
mean then that rulers held all the keys to Heaven? Indeed, the chiefs
and kings had evolved into the very instruments of the peoples'
The state's income from religion stemmed from the requirement of
sacrificial offerings from the people . This might be from ten to fifty
percent of what each individual produced or earned . But where the
traditional constitutional law of the Blacks prevailed, the people
willingly contributed from their means for a quite non-religious reason :
The central treasury belonged to the people and was maintained for the
people's welfare, not only for public projects but for the relief of each
and every individual in distress whose needs could not be met by his
family or clan . However, African constitutional law received its first
blow in Egypt in the wake of numerous invasions and foreign rule,
followed later by its almost complete destruction by Muslim and
European conquests .
The ancient religion that gave birth to science and learning, art,
engineering, architecture-the resources for a national economy and
political control-that same religion wars the mother of history, writing,
music, the healing art, the song and the dance .
The first historians were the professional story-tellers and traveling
singers . Both recounted the deeds of leaders, important events such as
wars and migrations, and how and by whom the society or state was
founded . Poetry and music were the cireations of the people in general
and, like the dance, came so easily that they seemed to be a natural
heritage of everyone . As the various musical instruments and singing
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter : Egypt

told a story, the dance also recorded a message, appealed for spiritual
aid from God and ancestors, expressed joy for successful harvest,
hunting, victories in war or forms of prayer to ward off the evil spirits
that always sought to overcome the good . Sickness is one of these evils,
hence, the association of medicine with the spiritual forces for good .
The ritual for appealing to a Power beyond man is called "magic" by
Westerners, that is, if they are discussing Africa . Exactly the same belief
and practice are called "divine healing" in Christiandom .
The great civilization of the Blacks which for countless ages was
centered around Nowe (Thebes) did not just happen . Progress does not
happen automatically . Every forward step made by these early Blacks
was made, you might even say forced,, by the imperatives of what had
to be done to survive . Bear in mind that spiritual survival was more
important than physical, a concept the modern world is not expected to
understand at all .
The development of writing is not explained by the simple statement
of a "need to communicate ." The idea of permanence seemed to
motivate the drawing of pictures and symbols which were man's first
step toward the art of writing . Significantly, the scribes arose in the holy
temples . And this is why so many inscriptions of historical importance
have been found there, on walls, altars and on colonnades. The world's
oldest city, with the greatest number of temples that were also the
oldest, must have been the place where the largest mass of historical
data would have been found, had not the plunderers from different
countries destroyed, stolen, and carried away so much of it . Here we
need not be as much concerned with further testimony such as that of
Diodorus affirming that the Thebans were the oldest (first) men on
earth, according to their tradition, and that they also originated the
systems of philosophy and astrology . We need not be as much concerned
about their antiquity, which was already well-established, as we are
about the loss of so much of the additional evidence concerning the
development of philosophy and the beginning of the space science of
astrology .
Ancient Greek scholars, through Herodotus, referred to the completion of their education in Ethiopia with pride and, it appears, as a
matter of course . So much has been built up against the black race since
those far away times that it will be difficult for many people of today to
realize that whites of the ancient world did not seem to regard the
question of Ethiopia as the principal center of learning as even debatable .

The Destruction of Black Civilization
But, we have to remind ourselves constantly, racism as we know it today
was practically non-existent . When an ancient people boasted of their
superiority over another nationality group, the terms of reference were
conquest, political rule, and some kind of myth to legitimize that rule .
When the fortunes of war enabled one white nation to enslave the
entire population of another white state, no one believed that the
conquered people were actually, that is, innately inferior to the
conquerors . Neither did the relatively backward Asian whites who
invaded Egypt consider themselves superior to the black builders of the
civilization they found there .
The emphasis has been on the Thebald as all Upper Egypt, Upper
Egypt as Upper Ethiopia, and Thebes (Nowe) as its most ancient city
and one of the very earliest centers of black civilization . We have said
that the ancient whites so regarded it . The Greek historian, Erathosthenes, refers to Menes as "The Theban" and first king of Thebes
(meaning the Thebald or Upper Egypt when it was united with Lower
Egypt, and the beginning of the First Dynasty (3100 B .C .) . The same
historian noted that Menes' reign of sixty-two years was one of the
longest in history, and that of his nephew, Atothones, ran a close
second, fifty-nine years .
During this early period, before Memphis was founded, "The City of
a Hundred Gates" spread six square miles over both sides of the
Nile . It was also the "City Beautiful," being called by more different
glorifying names than any city known to the ancient world . Its widest
avenues, lined with sphinxes, temples, palaces and monuments, could
accommodate an array of colorful chariots, twenty abreast . It was also
"The Two Cities," or "The City of the Living" and "The City of the
Dead ." One was on the east side of the river and the other was on the
west side . Each vied with the other in a race for magnificence . Palaces
and mansions were largely concentrated on the East Bank . Temples,
being everywhere, were about as numerous in the "City of the Living"
as in the "City of the Dead" on the West Bank where the mortuary
temples of kings and queens were located, along with the various
religious cults, and houses of priests, craftsmen, soldiers and the masses .
The West Bank was such a beehive of industrial, commercial and
religious activities that "City of the Dead," even though it refers to its
famous burial places, is nevertheless a very misleading name . Thebes'
status as the capital city and center of imperial activities rose and
declined, with few exceptions, according to the race or nationality of the
Ethiopia's Oldest Daughter : Egypt

ruling dynasty at that time . Being the center of black power, it was a
main object for destruction by non-African invaders and, after they had
achieved control, they established new capitals elsewhere . The importance of the city that had been the envy of the world was ignored, and
many of its cultural activities were transferred elsewhere . No white
pharaoh could feel either comfortable or safe in the center of one of the
most heavily populated areas of Blacks in the empire . The colored
Egyptians generally felt the same way . Thebes was also eclipsed at times
by the bulding programs of Black kings in their drive to advance from
the very old to the very new, and also for the purpose of securing a more
effective centralized administration . The building of Memphis was for
this purpose . On the other hand, Piankhi and his successors in the
Twenty-Fifth Dynasty apparently preferred the capital city of Napata in
the deep South over both Thebes and Memphis . Was this because the
Holy City of Napata was like Meroe, the one great all-black city that had
never been defiled by the conquerors' hands? We may so speculate . It is
clear, however, that Thebes reflected the shifts in power more directly,
whether or not the shifts were occasioned by internal or external forces .
It declined as Memphis rose during the Dynasties I, II, III, IV and V
(3100-2345 B.C .) . These were the first five African lineages to rule after
the reunification . There was a further decline of Thebes after the Fifth
Dynasty, and again for internal reasons of a quite different nature .
Suffice it to say that after the period during which there was an active
policy of integrating Africans and Asians through the Memphis capital
on their dividing line (the border between Upper and Lower Egypt),
native kings generally sought to restore to its ancient glory the city so
dear to the hearts of the Blacks


Egypt: The Rise
and Fall of Black Civilization

beginning with an outline of some important developments that
highlight factors in the rise and fall of the Blacks and a further discussion
of those factors . Let us therefore begin at the beginning where some of
those misterpretations were simply due to ignorance .
This takes us back tb the predynastic period of about 4500 B .C .,
certainly not the beginning, but quite far enough . Many writers refer to
the "kingless" periods before centralized states as the rule of nobles,
oligarchies or hierarchies, etc . From the beginning, therefore, the
Westerners applied Western concepts to quite different African
institutions . Later they described the same kind of societies as "chiefless"
or, worse, "stateless ." They did not understand the African constitutional
system of real self-government by the people through their representatives, the Council of Elders . Nor did they seem to understand that the
Chief Elder, or Chief, was also the Chief Priest or that the other elders
also had religious functions in connection with their respective clans .
During the predynastic period under discussion, they were neither
oligarchies nor hierarchies as these terms are understood in the West . In
fact, the Western conception of kingship was foreign to traditional
Africa . What the West called "king" was, in Africa, the same senior elder
who had to be elected and presided at the Council of Elders ; and, then,
only if he had had the honor of belonging to a family whose ancestors
had either founded the state or had been the most outstanding in

The Destruction of Black Civilization
promoting the welfare of the whole people . To such a family the
Africans gave permanent leadership status as long as descendent
candidates qualified for it . Westerners called this the "royal family ." But,
again, the "royal family" concept was unknown to traditional Africa
where the chief or "king" was the chief representative of the people
before God and man, and at once the personifications of the people's
dignity and the instrument for carrying out their will . Much confusion
and trouble developed (and still exist) all over the continent because
Africans generally accepted Western and Asian expressions without
accepting their underlying ideas . Hence, an African king who attempted
to be an absolute monarch or "oriental dictator" generally found himself
in trouble rather quickly .
The conversion of names in Egypt was on such a universal scale that
its African origin and character were changed as much as it was
humanly possible to do . Small political units or states, which Europeans
styled as chiefdoms in other parts of Africa, became nomarchies in
Egypt .
Since Asians and some Europeans were heavily concentrated in
Lower Egypt, it became relatively easy for them to appropriate exclusively for themselves not only the name "Egyptian," but also all achievements by the Blacks in Upper Egypt and the rest of the Ethiopian
empire . Holding the seacoasts and thus blocking' African contact with
the rest of the world, these "White Egyptians" were able to perpetuate
the myth so successfully that even today many remarkable achievements
by Blacks elsewhere over the continent are attributed to "Egyptian influence ." There is something amusing here too . For when they refer to
"Egyptian influence" on African institutions they are in fact pointing out
black influence on black institutions throughout Africa . No one but a
fool would deny Asian and European influence in Egypt and elsewhere
in Africa . This is a fact that is obvious, but not more obvious than the
nature of that influence as it was discussed in part before . It can be
singled out and separated from the basic institutions of the Blacks as
easily as we can separate Islam and Christianity form the traditional
African religion .
Another predynastic situation to keep in mind concerns government
in the Two Lands. All Asians had their kings in Lower Egypt and the
Blacks had their kings in Upper Egypt . The long drawn-out wars
Egypt : The Rise and Fall

between the two races were over the unification and control of the Two
Lands . These struggles apparently had been going on since the Asian
incursions began in prehistoric times . And it was not just the control of
all Egypt to the First Cataract that was involved, but unification and rule
of the whole Ethiopian empire from the Mediterranean Sea to the very
source of the Nile. This great design and all-consuming objective
throughout the history of Africa must be understood if, for example,
one is to understand why even black pharaohs of Egypt carried the wars
into the heartland of their own race, trying to subdue a rebellious
Nubia, Wawat or Cush . Southern separatist movements and rebellions
spread as Asian influence and integration spread in the North .
Viewing the outcome from the long perspective of history, Menes'
great victory over the Asians, the union of the white and black lands,
and the subsequent policy of trying to promote brotherhood through
integration, all this turned out to be not a victory for the Blacks, but the
beginning of their ultimate downfall and almost permanent degradation
as a people . It has been pointed out that up to the time of Menes' victory
over them, the Asians were rather firmly held behind a border line
along the 29th parallel . Few were allowed in the all-black regions of
Upper Egypt. With unification the situation radically changed in that
the gates to the South were now open to people who already held a
fourth of the country . The black masses were therefore apprehensive
about the new unification policies, and the general hostility to the
Asians checked any immediate and widespread infiltrations southward .
But time was on the side of the whites whose most commendable
attributes are tactful persistence when overt, aggressive action is for the
moment inexpedient, and their careful planning for their future
generations with what appears to be more interest in the future welfare
of their descendants than they are in the living . In Lower Egypt they
could bide their time and overcome the triumphant Blacks in many
ways. Asian kings in Lower Egypt, now dethroned, still had a direct
power over the Blacks through the "New Brotherhood of integration
and amalgamation. The African matrilineal system made the Asian
route to the African throne easy when compared with the generally
patrilineal system of the whites . All the Asian kings had to do, whether
in Lower Egypt or on the Asian continent, was to promote the marriage
of royal males to the oldest sisters of African kings . The first-born male
in such a carriage, though Afro-Asian, would be the number one
candidate far the throne .

The Destruction of Black Civilization
The other event to be awaited with patience was the passing of so
many great African leaders and the coming of weaker ones . This was an
historic certainty unless cycles of past developments were to be no more .
But time seemed slower and longer during the first five dynasties,
each of which was characterized by great leaders, a period of seven
hundred and fifty-five years . The roll call brings forth names that still
resound through the corridors of time : Menes, Athothes, Peribsen,
Khasekhem, Imhotep, Zoser, Sneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Userkaf,
Neferefre, and others who reestablished Ethiopian power as a united
empire and held it without a serious challenge for almost a thousand
years .
During this period, active foreign trade and expanded contacts with
other countries were now possible . Internal stability was achieved
through a process of increased centralization of power at Memphis and
the perfection of the bureaucracy of the vast imperial administration .
The state became the chief promoter and inspirer of progress on all
fronts : agriculture, industrial development, science, the arts, engineering,
massive building programs, mining and shipbulding . The rapid rise and
expansion of numerous crafts, each an organized secret society,
stimulated the remarkable industrial and building developments .
Internal peace and stability provided the opportunity for the outpouring
of much dormant native genius, and religion was the chief motivating
source . Every craft society had its own patron sub-god (not to be
confused with the Supreme God) . It was during this same period that
stone was first used in building, hieroglyphic writing was first invented,
the great pyramids were built, stone quarrying perfected and expanded
and Imhotep became the world's greatest architect and the "Father of
Scientific Medicine ." It was seven and a half centuries of the most
glorious pages in the history of the black world .
There was a concentration of some of the greatest leaders in the
Fourth Dynasty, 2613-2494 B .C . Thereafter, fewer and fewer of the
great kings appeared to stem the disorganization that was clearly
developing near the close of the Sixth Dynasty . The most notable
achievement was doubtless the compilation of the Palermo Stone
Annals, a work of great historical importance .
The Old Kingdom ended with this dynasty . The great wealth of the
nation, continued international commerce and internal progress overshadowed the accelerating disintegration in the country . Conflicts
between the religious cults battling for more and more political power
Egypt: The Rise and Fall 101
expanded. Rebellions of various chiefdoms, seeking independence
from weak and weaker rulers at Memphis, also spread . Decentralization
became the order of the day-the day for which the Asians had been
patiently waiting so long . Under weak rulers at Memphis and the
breaking up of the country into small independent areas (nomarchies),
Asian penetration and expansion in the "Black Land" became the
Earlier, I referred to the African failure to employ the essentials of real
nation-building, and proposed certain criteria they generally fail to use .
When this is done our black students often protest that the "same is also
true of many non-African peoples ." They would like to take comfort in
this fact (for it is a fact) and forget the whole thing . But I am not now
dealing with these "other peoples ." I am concerned here only with
African life and history . The failures of one people should serve as a
warning of what to avoid, and not as a justification for similar failures by
another . The glaring weakness in the unification of the Ethiopian
empire was the absence of any national program for the development of
a national solidarity and a sense of national community and belonging
that aimed at overcoming the greater local or tribal loyalties .
To begin with, there were too many tributary states within the
empire . Their very reason for being a part of the empire was mainly
for tribute, their regular contributions to the imperial treasury . Such
states did not, and indeed, could not feel themselves to be integral parts
of the empire . Blinded by the wealth that was pouring into the national
treasury, the empire builders were unable to see or understand the
requirements of the human heart and spirit for the formation of
attitudes of love and devotion toward a national citizenship . We shall be
discussing the traditional African constitution later because every
expanding African kingdom and empire already had the guidelines
which the leaders thought applied only to small states or they felt
themselves to be so rich and powerful that the traditional constitutional
safeguards could be safely ignored. In the smaller states or tribal
societies the African constitutional system operated to promote and
support equal justice, individual and group welfare or social security,
and an undying loyalty to the group . The very scheme of social
organization assured all this . Group solidarity became a natural
development . An almost fierce spirit of brotherhood and sisterhood
prevailed in all tribal states . The work of expanding this spirit as the
nation expanded was rarely undertaken .
1 02

The Destruction of Black Civilization
Since there was no such program in the best of times, the "every-(
province-for-itself" spirit was chaff before the storms of invasions . The
invaders had found it easy to establish another Asian capital, even at
Heracleopolis . This move, in view of the general trend throughout
Ethiopia, was thought to be taken at the most propitious time, when the
empire was falling apart and no one was in command . But Asian
assumption of imperial power and the establishment of their capital in
the center of the black world aroused the disorganized and leaderless
people to fury . And the Asians apparently had not take into account
Thebes, the seat of the blacks' war god and the place from where the
mightiest African armies always came . Of course, even with this
knowledge neither the Asians or anyone else would expect any threat
from Thebes in the present state of national chaos . But the Blacks had
always looked to Thebes in times of crisis, leaders or no leaders . They
did so now . Theben leaders emerged, and with them fighting men arose
to battle the Asians again . Heracleopolis fell to the Blacks ; but Asian
kings were able to hold Lower Egypt again and reestablish dynasties
there under Kheti I and his successors . Western historians refer to this
period as the First Intermediate Period, 2181-2040 B.C., and further
confused an already too confused situation by mixing the Asian rulers
of Lower Egypt with the African rulers of Upper Egypt, and then listing
all the dynasties sequentially so that from such an arrangement one
could not distinguish the white Asian dynasties, kings or pharaohs from
the Black . So the eleven Asian kings of Lower Egypt who followed Kheti
I appeared as "Kings of Egypt ."
We should pause at the beginning of the Middle Kingdom, 2133 B .C .,
because during the long 1,500 years covered by my brief summary one
of the most unusual socio-political phenomena occurred . It has been
referred to numerous times before in terms of its development, but now
the unexpected had happened. At this point we have passed fifteen
centuries of African-Asian amalgamation, at first largely in Lower Egypt,
but afterward more and more in black Upper Egypt . The Afro-Asian
offsprings were called the "new breed," the distinguishing characteristics of which were devotion to Asians and hatred of Africans . Unless
this point is grasped, we may as well drop the study of African history
insofar as understanding fully the internal troubles of this race .
First, the Afro-Asians, or "Coloureds," had far outnumbered the
Asians in the northern population during the past 1,500 years . Second,
the Coloureds had become sensitively aware that they were suspended
Egypt: The Rise and Fall

between two worlds, the black and the white, and that they were not
fully accepted in either . Nowhere did their Asian fathers and other
white kinsmen regard or accept them as equals, while the Blacks had
come to hate them as much as they hated the Blacks . Third, out of this
situation developed a passionate and defiant nationalism that restricted
the term "Egyptian" to Mulattoes alone . Henceforth, neither Asians or
Africans were to be called Egyptians . Indeed, the new breed began to
treat Asians as strangers and no longer welcomed them en masse even
in Lower Egypt. The Afro-Asians had apparently resolved that since
they could not belong to either the black or white race, they would be a
race by themselves, and in their own right-the Egyptian race . It
worked. Asians, if unmixed, were now called Asians, and Africans, if
unmixed, were called Africans or Ethiopians. They alone (the new
breed) would be called Egyptians, and the writers of the world would
follow this classification from Homer's time to this day . I shall use the
terms in the same way in all subsequent references . In the earliest
period "Egyptian" would have meant the Blacks ; later on it would have
meant Blacks and Afro-Asians . The white Asians were never called
Egyptians even when they ruled all Egypt . (Even the present day rulers
of the land are unhappy with the term and much prefer to be called
what they are : Arabs ; hence, the change of the official name of the
country from Egypt to the United Arab Republic .)
However, the increasing hostility to the . Asians was due to their
offsprings' resentment over being rejected as equals and having a lower
status in the society whenever white Asians were in control . Their
hostility to the Africans had been nurtured from birth and remained the
same. Yet they never failed to seek alliances with the Blacks when it
suited their purposes (just as they do today thru OAU), or to marry into
ruling African families to enhance and perpetuate their rule .
The Eleventh Dynasty was started with stronger black rulers,
beginning with Mentuhotep and followed by three kings of the same
name. Their rule was again limited to Upper Egypt, since the Asians
had reestablished their rule in Lower Egypt during the period of
nationwide turmoil and rebellions . Mentuhotep II, after restoring order
in Upper Egypt and promoting a rapid economic program, had turned
north to repeat Menes' great fear of conquering Lower Egypt again


But Ethiopia below the First Cataract did not return to the reunited
imperial fold in the North . As we have seen, the southern kingdoms did
not intend to return, Their defections had been going on, one right after
another, long before the general disorganization and rebellions during
the Sixth and Seventh Dynasties . Hostility to the Asian invasions was
always greatest in the southern regions . Many of the people claimed the
Asian-held areas as their ancestral home . They wanted Lower Egypt
conquered and the Asians driven out . Menes had achieved the great
victory, but the integration policies that followed were regarded as a
betrayal of the Blacks . They had lost faith in the black kings ruling from
Memphis, who not only favored integration, but promoted it . The
steady movement of the whites from the Delta into Upper Egypt itself
was proof enough for southern Blacks that the Asian aim was nothing
less than ultimate control of all Ethiopia . As the Asian presence and
influence spread in Upper Egypt, the withdrawal to the southern kingdoms appeared to keep pace .
But why were the Blacks farthest away from the Asian threat so much
more concerned (or appeared to be) than those who still lived next door
to the enemy in Upper Egypt? Even the larger number of refugees from
Lower Egypt must have settled in Upper Egypt because the biggest
concentration of Blacks was there . This would have been the situation
around 2400 B.C . The answer may be that since Napata was regarded
as the unchanging capital and center of the black world, and not Nowe
(Thebes) of glorious memory, any threat to this sacred area (Land of the
Gods) was a threat to the survival of the race itself.
The first great southern division of the Ethiopian empire was the
kingdom of Wawat, and below that was the far greater kingdom of
Nubia which, like many other vast areas, while nominally a part of the
empire, was at various times independent . The age-old dream of all the
great kings, black, white, or mixed, was the consolidation of the
Northern and Southern regions; hence, the constant wars against Lower
Egypt and, now, again, Mentuhotep's war against Nubia . In both cases,
that of the Asians in the far North and the Blacks in the far South,
economics was the driving force. The hold on the seacoasts not only
blocked the Africans from world trade, but that fact enabled the Asians
and Coloureds to control the domestic economy indirectly as well . The
record shows that every time this Asian stranglehold was broken,
African foreign trade again flourished and national prosperity began to
Egypt: The Rise and Fall

rise . One the other hand, no matter how black the pharaohs were, if
only for economic reasons Southern Ethiopia (Nubia or Cush or
Abyssinia) had to be more firmly integrated with the North . The South
was the real source of Egypt's wealth as it had been for Egypt's
civilization . The South actually had all Egypt at its mercy . The gold
mines were there and it was where the vast stone quarrying, copper,
and tin mining were conducted . From the South came most of the
papyrus plants from which the Blacks invented paper and built the first
and finest boats from the same tough leaves . The South had all the
ivory and, at that time, was the only source of the highly-prized ostrich
feathers, etc . In short, Egyptian foreign trade depended almost entirely
on Southern Ethiopia . Added to these economic imperatives, there was
an even greater danger felt in the North . This was the control of the
Nile, almost all of which, over 3,000 miles, flowed through Southern
Ethiopia .
Black Upper Egypt, being in the middle, was forced by circumstances
to play the leading role in the wars for unification in both directions and,
considering the many centuries over which they were intermittently
waged, they seemed destined to go on forever . It is noteworthy that all
these long drawn-out efforts at unification of an empire under a
centralized government were confined to the -directly indispensable
economic regions which were contiguous to each other .
Other "members" of the empire, even those who had long since
stopped paying tribute, were not disturbed . In fact, as I have been
indicating, "Ethiopian Empire" was often merely a geographical
expression insofar as effective rule over all of its supposed parts was
concerned . To keep the picture as clear as possible, we have to keep on
remembering that at various periods in ancient times, the "Land of the
Blacks" meant all Ethiopia, all Ethiopia meant all Africa, and all Blacks
were Africans or Ethiopians or Thebans, etc . There were numerous
independent states in the Western Land of the Blacks (Western Sudan)
that may have claimed a membership alliance with the Ethiopian
Empire as an expression of pride-nothing more than a symbolic
gesture to the great state that was the "Mother of the Race" and which
bore the race's name, Ethiopian .' In any event, the extent of the
1 . It is well known, of course, that "Ethiopian" is the Greek rendering
of Black or the "sun-burnt people ."

The Destruction of Black Civilization
territory claimed at times for the Empire was so vast that even if there
had been efforts to consolidate states other than those directly north
and south, it would have been impossible in the absence of administrative and communication systems for the task .
The war to bring Nubia under control started near the end of the
Eleventh Dynasty and went on for over four hundred years, ending in
defeat for southern blacks in the next dynasty, 1991-1786 B.C . This
period was notable for the further expansion of foreign trade, especially
in Palestine, Syria, and Punt, the "Golden Age" of the arts and crafts, a
vast program of land reclamation and marked improvements in
irrigation .
By repetition, one of the greatest of the "Great Issues" stands out .
With each and every mass invasion of the whites the physical characteristics of the Egyptian people change more and more, becoming more
and more "caucasoid" as more and more Blacks tended to move
southward . When the white dynasties continued for several centuries,
as in the case of the "Children of Israel," Semitic caucasianization was
accelerated on an ever-widening scale . One of the signifiant ethnic
changes was that the only people then recognized as Egyptians (the
Afro-Asians) became more Asian-white in color, language and culture .
Upper Egypt was becoming less "black" Egypt . Thebes under white rule
was becoming a museum center for European and Asian collectors . So
by the time Herodotus and other Greek historians arrived, Ethiopia, as
an empire, extended only up to the First Cataract



But that time was still far away when Kamose, the last Theban king in
the Seventeenth Dynasty (1645-1567 B.C.), opened a full-scale War of
Liberation against the Hebrews and the greatest of the dynasties since
the Fourth had now arrived . This was the remarkable Eighteenth
Dynasty with a line. of kings and queens who became immortal:
Ahmose I, Nefertari, Amenhotep 11, Thutmose 1, Thutmose 11, Queen
Hatshepsut the Great, Amenhotep 111, Ikhnaton, the "Great Reformer,"
and Tutankhamen . It was called the "New Empire," and so it was in
fact . The Hyksos rule was broken and they were "expelled ." This,
however, could only apply to the rulers and their immediate followers .
The Hyksos masses were scattered over the country and permanently
settled as "Egyptians ." They had become integrated into Egyptian
Egypt: The Rise and Fall

society . Contributing to its development on all fronts, they were not
disturbed when their leaders were expelled . There was the usual revival
of domestic industry, agriculture and foreign trade, along with the
expansions of imperial rule in Palestine and Syria to the Euphrates in
Mesopotamia . This expansion of empire and its promise of great wealth
from the accompanying expansion of trade meant renewal of the wars
against their black brothers holding the economically indispensable
South . This time the new and most powerful central government was
able to extend its rule farther south than ever ; that is, to the Fourth
cataract, almost to the Holy City of Napata itself .
For Western writers to state that obvious truth that the black rulers of
Egypt did not hesitate to wage wars against the black rulers of Southern
Ethiopia, to state this would have destroyed their biggest myth that the
Egyptians (white Asians or Coloureds) were always the conquering
heroes over the Blacks in the South . In short, as previously stated, these
wars did not always follow a racial pattern .
As would be expected under black rulers, Thebes was again
reorganized under the Eighteenth Dynasty and much of its ancient
grandeur restored . Temple building in the grand style was resumed .
The Eighteenth, like some of the previous African dynasties, was well
integrated with "loyal Asians ." For there were, it should be needless to
say, countless thousands of Asians who were wholeheartedly devoted to
the Blacks, just as there were thousands of Afro-Asians (Egyptians) as
loyal to the black race as any Black could possibly be . Therefore, when
an overall picture is presented, such as in my discussion of the attitudes
of Asians, Afro-Asians and Africans toward each other, one should
keep the always big exceptions in mind . Nothing is ever all-white, allblack or, in this case, all half-white . In the case of the half-whites, the
record overflows with those who, contrary to the rule, hated the fact of
their white blood and stuck to the Blacks and their cause all the more
tenaciously. These are the kinds of outcomes that reflect the complexities
and variations of the human mind, and that make generalizations about
a whole people, if anything, ridiculous .
The "Great Eighteenth" had begun under the most favorable
circumstances, for one of the great black queens of Egypt, Nefertari, and
her equally famous husband, Ahmose 1, headed the dynasty. As was the
custom, she had been named after some of the distinguished queens of
similar name who had preceded her . None of them, however, ranked
near Nefertari of the Eighteenth in active participation and leadersip in
the greatest woman Pharaoh
of Black Egypt . 18th Dynasty .
Egypt : The Rise and Fall

national affairs . She helped her son, Amenhotep, in the great work of
national reconstruction . If she did not reach the heights of the greatest
black queen of Egypt, Hatshepsut, it was only because the latter was a
queen absolute, ruling along as a king (to emphasize the point she often
dressed in royal male attire, including the false beard and wig) . But the
comparison is hardly fair because each was great in her field of work,
and that work was largely predetermined, and the role to be played by
each was clear . And that was why, in the end, both Nefertari and
Amenhotep I were deified as the founders of one of the world's greatest
line of rulers and some of the finest monuments were erected to their
memory. Had the people forgotten Ahmose, her husband, who was the
true founder?
Queen Hatsheput, daughter of Thutmose 1, was indeed a "man" in
many of her aggressive and unyielding characteristics as a ruler . As
regent for Thutmose 111, she tended to be an absolute ruler and, by
expertly relying on her feminine charms, she was able to have her own
way without a real check by the Council, something few African kings
could do successfully . But it was not all due to "feminine charms,"
perhaps not at all . For Hatshepsut was, in fact, one of the most brilliant
minds that ever ascended the throne of a nation . Her reign was in two
parts, one as regent and the other as reigning queen in her own right .
There was actually no difference, for Thutmose III was too young to
count . Even before becoming legal ruler, therefore, she was actively
pushing the things dearest to the hearts of all great African leaders : the
expansion of foreign trade, international diplomatic relations, perfection of national defenses, vast public building programs, securing the
South and the North through either peace or war and, one of her "pet
projects," building a great navy for both commerce and war . Her success
on most of these fronts made her one of the giants of the race .
Meanwhile, the next Thutmose was waiting with increasing impatience
and frustration to succeed a woman who, to him at least, seemed
destined to live forever. The fact that his wife was the Queen's daughter
only increased the really morbid hatred of his royal mother-in-law .
Consequently, when he finally became King Thutmose III at last, he
himself did what Asians and Europeans were to do on a scale so grand
that the history of ancient Egypt, as essentially black history, was almost
completely obliterated . He undertook to erase her name from all the
monuments and temples she had built, destroying all documents bearing
her name, and smashing all sculptured likenesses, paintings and, indeed,
1 1 0

The Destruction of Black Civilization
anything that might indicate that Hatshepsut ever lived . Also, as later
Europeans and Asians were to do to all inscriptions reflecting the Blacks,
Thutmose III had his own name and that of his brother engraved where
Hatshepsut's had been chiselled out, thus taking credit for all of her
achievements in addition to his own outstanding works . These were
many, and need not be detailed since so much of it repeats the works of
great leaders already discussed .
Queen Tiy was also one of Egypt's remarkable queens . Amenhotep
III and Queen Tiy gave a son to Egypt who was destined to be one of the
greats in in the black world . This was Amenhotep IV, known to fame as
Ikhnaton. He was different from all of his predecessors . He was more
preacher than king, and the greatest single spiritual force to appear in
the history of the Blacks . His great religious reform movement aimed at
a greater focus on the One and Only Almighty God, Creater of the
Universe . The numerous lesser gods had overshadowed the Almighty
in involving people by causing them to worship the gods through the
endless number of competing cults, all served by a too self-serving
priesthood . Such an unheard-of stand by the leader of the nation meant
revolution and certain rebellion by the powerful priesthoods all over
the land . Yet the new doctrine did not reach the masses and the nonspiritual demands for leadership on pressing earthly fronts put the king
in an unhappy situation . One was the continued Asian harassments on
the eastern borders . Ikhnaton grew more indifferent as his religious
movement declined . After 17 years of heroic efforts, he passed in 1362
B.C ., leaving the reins to Tutankhamen . This stepson's efforts to carry
on the work of his father had only limited success . The old-time
religions still prevailed . Ikhnaton'5 impact on the nation, however, was
everlasting . His proposed reforms had more to do with a shift in
emphasis than in faith . But even this seems to have been regarded as a
direct threat to the powerful priesthood that, no matter how much
divided into numerous cults, could unite in a common cause .
The power of the priesthood rose as the kings of Egypt became more
preoccupied with secular affairs than with their religious role as high
priest of The Most High . It has been pointed out that the ruler's political
influence stemmed not from the constitution but from his close
relationship with the gods . The priests themselves had promoted the
evolution of an idea of the ruler's role as chief priest and intermediary
with the ancestral dead and the gods, to the idea of the ruler's kinship
with the gods, thereby becoming divine himself, the son or daughter of
a god, and, finally, a god himself .
Egypt: The Rise and Fall

As custodians of the temples, the priests were promoting and making
their own positions more powerful and secure by promoting the divine
kingship idea . It meant that each king would try to outdo his predecessors
in building more bigger and finer temples and colossal burial structures
(the pyramids) for the royal saints and the sons and daughters of Amon,
Horus, Set, etc . etc .
The priests were in the most strategic positions to acquire great
economic and political power for themselves quite naturally and without
any particular efforts to do so . They were the first men of learning :
scribes, historians, scientists, architects, physicians, artists, mathematicians, astrologers, and especially chemists . Many temples, therefore,
were colleges as well as places of worship . The temples were also places
through which flowed much of the national revenue . We could go on
and on, indicating how and why priests became so politically powerful
in Egyptian life that even a great king like Ikhnaton could not overcome
their opposition . It was too late for him to escape from the now
traditional status of being "divine ." One might say it was the price a god
has to pay for god-makers .
In 1320 B.C ., the Age of the Ramses began . This time, a line of great
leaders was not followed by a line of weaklings . This was the Nineteenth
Dynasty, 1320-1200 B .C . And while it did not equal the "Glorious
Eighteenth," the Ramses kings stamped their periods as one of the most
outstanding in the long history of the country . It was only near its end
that the usual phenomenon of weakness and decline in the cycle began
to set in as general social, economic and political disorganization . The
Ramses rule continued through the Twentieth Dynasty, 1200-1085 B .C .
The Twenty-First, Twenty-Second and Twenty-Third periods, 1085-
730 B.C ., again illustrated, as I had stated before, the fallacy of trying to
chronicle African history in Egypt by dynasties . I had pointed out that at
various times during the long, long struggles for power we find several
different "dynasties" ruling at the same time from their respective
capitals in various parts of the country . Every period of weak kings at
Memphis or Thebes was a general breakdown during which exactly the
same happened over and over again : The Asian Lower Egypt became
independent again, and from its capital at Avaris or Sais pushed the
expansion of Asian power in Upper Egypt . By 1085 B.C ., the Asian
population was so vast there that new Asian dynasties were relatively
easy to establish almost anywhere north of the First Cataract . During
one of these periods, 70 kings in 70 days was reported .
1 1 2

The Destruction of Black Civilization
The picture now was one of those confused scenes of black dynasties,
Asian dynasties, Egyptian dynasties (Afro-Asian), combination dynasties, (those formed by alliances between two of the above groups), all
ruling simultaneously in Egypt from various capitals . Many historians
were further misled by the fact that while some of these so-called
dynasties claimed to be the imperial government of all Egypt, others
made no such claim and confined themselves to their local chiefdoms or
nomarchies . Significantly, many of the latter were headed by priests .
Our references to dynasties formed by alliances between two groups
against a third could misleading to those who failed to grasp what had
been said about the changing ethnic character of the dynasties over
many centuries . From the . Fifth and Sixth Dynasties on, we have
pointed out, Asian penetration through the "royal marriage route"
caused the succeeding dynasties, with few exceptions to become
increasingly mixed . Often they were only predominantly black, halfblack, less than half-black, or predominantly'Asian or Egyptian (AfroAsian). The founders of the Eighteenth Dynasty, like many similar
instances, illustrate the reality of the process . For it is well known that
the famous Queen Nefertari was "all-black," while her equally great
husband, Ahmose I, was mulatto (Egyptian) . So that the Eighteenth,
like the great Nineteenth Dynasty of the Ramses, was predominantly
black, not all-black . On the other hand, the long periods of all-white
Asian and European dynasties were emphasized, and had to be
emphasized, to set the record straight .
There were also, for still another example, "Libyan dynasties,"
indicated by the Libyan names of the rulers . But who, now, were the
Libyans? They were, first of all, Western Ethiopians, then heavily
Berber, Mongolian, Arab, a sprinkling of Hebrews and other Asiatic
peoples, and then, of course, the resulting Afro-Asians . The ethnic
composition of Libya was about the same as that of early Egypt, with the
exception that there were fewer Europeans and more Mongolians .
Libya was once so nearly all-black that to be called a Libyan meant
that one was Black . So the Libyan dynasties during this period could
have been predominantly white, black, Afro-Asian or a combination of
all three, depending upon what faction was in the ascendency at the
time .
It is also worth noting that not only the whites of Lower Egypt took
advantage of every breakdown in the center (Upper Egypt), declaring
its independence and attempting to extend their rule over the whole
Egypt: The Rise and Fall

land, Southern Ethiopia tried to do exactly the same thing . The truth is
that the milleniums of contests over Egypt were never really over
unification per se, but rather who should rule the land after unification
was completed-the whites of the Delta or the Blacks of Southern
Ethiopia, particularly those south of the First Cataract? Indeed, as the
Asianization of Upper Egypt increased, migrations of the Blacks southward increased, hostility toward the North increased, and the resolve of
the Blacks to reconquer all of their land all the way to the Mediterranean
was renewed once more .
The southern region, therefore, generally became independent as
soon as Lower Egypt became independent . It began to threaten Upper
Egypt at the same time the Asian threat was spreading . The Southern
Ethiopians were even more bitter because they had to fight the
"integrationist Blacks" of Egypt just as hard as they had to fight the
whites from Lower Egypt and Libya . The South was no more prepared
to accept all-white rule .' If anything, they trusted the mixed breeds less
because of their ability to play either the white or black role as it suited
their purposes . This may also be the reason so many blacks opposed
large-scale amalgamation . It appeared as one of the white man's most
effective weapons for the domination of the- race while at the same time
slowly removing it from the face of the earth . As proof, the Ethiopians
could ask, "From whence came our worst enemies, the Egyptians? Are
they not half Ethiopian? And do they not now scorn the very Ethiopian
name itself, proclaiming themselves to be `white'?"
The Ethiopians, therefore, followed all developments to the north,
northeast and west with the closest attention . The activities of the
probably Libyan king of the Twenty-Second Dynasty, Sheshonk I, did
not escape their notice and appraisal . From his capital at Bubastis in
Lower Egypt, he pushed affairs on a number of fronts, including the
usual stragey of marriage alliances of black ruling families with white
males . These alliances, after worming their way to power through the
African inheritance-through-female-line system (matrilineal), could then
change to the Asian and Western patrilineal system . This invidious
scheme for achieving power over the Blacks through the Blacks did not
escape those on alert . The move of Sheshonk I to negotiate a marriage
with the daughter of a king and gain legitimate control of Thebes, fitted
the well-known pattern of expanding Caucasian power, never failed to
create anotht°r stir in the still all-black areas . To make matters worse
from the viewpoint of the Blacks, Sheshonk had another son made High
1 1 4

The Destruction of Black Civilization
Priest of the African god, Amon . The significance of this should be
obvious : The whites were systematically preempting the whole of Egypt,
even adopting, as their own, black institutions they could not easily
destroy. And they were wise enough to gain control of the African
religion . So now, as the whites became priests and worshipers of the
Supreme God and lesser gods of the Blacks in Egypt, the success of
erasing every vestige of early African civilization was moving toward the
absolute . As the white priesthoods became stronger and more widespread, they were not only able to secure control of Thebes, the most
powerful stronghold of the Blacks in Egypt, but of equal importance,
they were then in a position to gain followers in the rebelling nomarchies
and persuade dissident chiefs to acknowledge the overlordship of Asian
kings in various parts of the country . In short, they took over Africa's
gods as their own as a means of taking over Africa as their own .
There was nothing sudden or new about this . The process was as long
and leisurely as Egyptian history itself, gaining rapid momentum only
during the often-repeated decades of internal strife . Lower Egypt was
always the area from which internal strife in black Upper Egypt was
planned and promoted . Secret agents, as mentioned earlier, are not new
inventions of modern states . The only thing new about Tefnakhte's
penetrations of Upper Egypt between 730 and 715 B .C . was that this
time, an Asian king (Libyan) from his Delta capital, now at Sais, had so
inflamed Southern Ethiopia that all-out war was declared against both
Asians and Egyptians (Afro-Asians) and the twenty-one year old king,
Piankhi, was given supreme command of the black armies .


In view of the extent of the expansion of Asian power in Upper
Egypt, the Ethiopians' age-old dream of recovering their northern
homelands now seemed to be, in the very truth, an impossible dream .
In 715 B.C ., the strong situation of the Asians was such that the idea of
the Blacks repeating Menes' feat of twenty-three centuries before, that
of once again expanding the Ethiopian empire northward to the
Mediterranean, now seemed fantastic . Both Asian kings, Tefnakhte and
Bocchoria, were themselves great leaders and field commanders . And,
of all things, they had already taken Thebes and practically had all
Egypt under Asian control . (Some writers put it the other way and say
Egypt: The Rise and Fall

they had control of the Thebald-another name for Upper Egypt .) The
great city of Heracleopolis alone held out until the arrival of Ethiopian
forces. The immediate objective of Piankhi and the Ethiopian generals
was the recapture of Thebes . Supported by his naval forces moving
down the Nile and the thousands of black fighters who flocked to his
standard as he moved northward through Upper Egypt, Piankhi's
armies drove the Asians out of Thebes, reestablished it as the capital
city of the North, put Tefnakhte and his court to flight and, apparently
using tactics of Menes, pressed on to capture the once all-black capital
city of Memphis . "The rightful rulers of our land have returned!" the
oppressed Blacks cried as they flocked to his standard . Piankhi returned
to the capital city of Napata in the "Heartland" before Lower Egypt was
brought under control again . The task of reuniting the country under
Ethiopian rule was left for his great successor, Shabaka .
Shabaka firmly established the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty, the only one
Western writers generally recognized as Black! This dynasty, however,
should be of special significance for the black world, not because it was
African from the beginning, but because the end of this period, 730-656
B .C ., marked the end of all-out efforts by the Blacks to retake Egypt .
The African victory over the Asians did not lessen the danger from
them, for they always had the advantage of striking either from within
or from Asia itself. Now the new threat came from Asia . Assyria was
fighting its way toward Egypt . The pathways had been made easy
because the previous Egyptian conquest of Palestine and Syria had
made these countries bastions of defense as long as they were properly
governed. The later Egypt had been unable to do this . So Palestine and
Syria, like Egypt itself, had become weak from internal disorganization .
At first the Assyrian advance seemed to be concerned only with Syria
and Palestine, not Egypt . Uneasiness spread as the Assyrian hosts
approached the borders of Egypt .
However, Shabaka first followed the pattern of modern diplomacy by
loudly professing one thing while actively doing the very opposite . In
this case, Shabaka, while actively cultivating the friendship of the
Assyrian king, Sargon 11, was just as active in supporting the armies of
the Syrians and Palestinians . "Modern," I say, because it was exactly the
same kind of "commitment" and "special interests" policy that the
United States maintains in East Asia and other places around the world .
In 671 B.C ., Es'arhaddon led his Assyrian forces to victory near the
Egyptian border and moved on to capture the city of Memphis, retaken
War Council at Napata : Piankhi, Shabaka and generals plan for third great war
against Asian invaders and the reconquest of all Egypt . They began the 25th
Dynasty, and were the last of the all-black Pharaohs to rule the United empire
from the Mediterranean to the highlands of Abyssinia .
Egypt: The Rise and Fall

from one army of Asians only to be lost to another . Esarhaddon seemed
to have thought that he had conquered Egypt when he took the ancient
capital . He retired after appointing local princes to collect the usual
tribute . Shabaka's nephew, Tarharqa, promptly marched up from the
south again and massacred all of the Assyrian garrisons . Esarhaddon
died leading a second expedition of vengeance in 699 B .C . His son,
Ashurbanipa, assumed the leadership, invaded Egypt and put Taharqa
to flight . The Egyptian governors were reinstated under a governorgeneral named Necho, also Egyptian . As was to be expected, the Blacks
of Upper Egypt remained loyal to the African line . They shouted loud
enough for posterity to hear that the Blacks were the "rightful rulers of
Egypt ." Taharqa was succeeded by his nephew, Tanutamon . He renewed
the war against the Assyrians and the Egyptians, the latter preferring, as
usual, to support the Asians against native Africans . Tanutamon
recaptured Memphis again, during which battle the Egyptian governorgeneral Necho was slain . This placed the Africans in a dominant
position in Northern Egypt once again . But in 661 B.C., the outraged
Ashurbanipal drove the African armed forces out of Northern Egypt .
He pursued them up the Nile and burned their ancient city of Thebes,
the stronghold of black power from times immemorial .
The Africans, eventually barred from further rule in Egypt, continued
Piankhi's line first from the capital at Napata and then at Meroe where
they promoted a broad reconstruction program . There the remarkable
Twenty-Fifth Dynasty ended in 656 B .C . The line of kings from
Piankhi to Tanutamon were all buried in the great Pyramids they and
their ancestors had built at Napata . Let us follow the Blacks from Egypt
to there


The First Cataract:
The Black World's New Borderline

northern border had been pushed to the First Cataract at Assuan, and
Necho II eventually became king of Egypt, beginning the Twenty-Sixth
Dynasty, 665-525 B .C. The Egyptian armies were increasingly made up
of foreigners and enslaved Blacks . It was during this dynasty that the
Assyrians were expelled again, this time by nationalistic Egyptians . The
Blacks' loss of their beloved Memphis, Thebes, and even their Egyptian
name now seemed to be final .
Other invasions came . The Persians under Darius the Great took
over, and their domination of Egypt lasted from 525 to 404 B.C., with
the assistance of Greek mercenaries . They returned in 343 B .C. to
reestablish their rule, but again for only a relatively short duration .
Alexander reached Egypt in 332 B.C ., on his world conquering rampage .
But one of the greatest generals in the ancient world was also the
Empress of Ethiopia . This was the formidable black Queen Candace,
world famous as a military tactician and field commander . Legend has it
that Alexander could not entertain even the possibility of having his
world fame and unbroken chain of victories marred by risking a defeat,
at last, by a woman . He halted his armies at the borders of Ethiopia and
did not invade to meet the waiting black armies with their Queen in
personal command . Upon his death, one of his most outstanding
generals became Pharaoh as Ptolemy I, thus beginning 300 years of
Macedonian-Greek rule . Toward the end of Greek domination, the
Queen Candace, Empress of Ethiopia and General-in-Chief of its armies, waiting
for Alexander the Great to cross the new borderline at the First Cataract .
Alexander, having conquered Egypt easily, decided against the invasion of the
ancient center of Black Power and halted his army at the First Cataract, 332 B .C .

The Destruction of Black Civilization
expansion of the Roman Empire had transferred the real center of
power to Rome . Assyria, Persia, Greece, Rome-the continuing process
of transforming a black civilization into a near-white civilization long
before the Christian era .
The Ptolemaic period had been largely one of confusion . The division
of power among the Greeks, Macedonians and Egyptians, and intermarriages with the latter, joint rule, etc ., made the Ptolemies, at times,
merely nominal rulers . There were times when a native Afro-Asian
ruler gained the center of the stage as the star attraction, as in the case of
Cleopatra . Upon her death, in 30 B .C, Romans assumed direct control,
ruling the country for seven centuries, beginning their reign thirty years
before Jesus Christ would be born in the same Palestine where Blacks
had lived and ruled so long .
After this long period of domination, the Arab general Amr-ibn-alAs, entered Alexandria in 642 A.D . with only 4,000 men . The conquest
of Egypt by the Muslim armies, which had reached Pelusium two years
earlier, was not only to change the character of Egyptian civilization
radically, but it was to have a `disastrous impact on the dignity and
destiny of Africans as a people . The Arab conquest had opened the
floodgates wider and Arabs poured in . Colonization and Islamization
progressed . As Egypt became a main center of Arab power, this fact
found concrete expression in Arab-Islamic expansion over North Africa
into Spain, and southward into what remained as "The Land of the
Blacks ."



We have traced the ancient struggles between Africans, Mulattoes
and Asians, where the Africans sought not only to resist conquest, but
to retake the whole of Egypt . They succeeded at times, but finally lost all
of Egypt, as we have seen .
Ethiopia now began at the First Cataract in the north and extended
south into present-day Ethiopia . It was now bounded by Upper Egypt,
the Red Sea and the Libyan desert . These are rather general geographical
designations without any precise meaning, for ancient Ethiopia had no
precise southern boundaries . Ancient Ethiopians would say that their
land included Egypt and was in fact without boundaries in Africa
insofar as non-Africans were concerned . All of the European and Asian
Egypt: The Rise and Fall 121
doctrines about "unoccupied" regions of Africa at any given period in
history are quite meaningless and unacceptable to Africans . For to
them, it is just as senseless as it would be to say to a farmer anywhere,
"See here now! There are large sections of your land unoccupied and
untended. So we'll just come in and take it!"
The Africans' area of great concentration was ancient Nubia between
the First and the Sixth Cataracts . It was the land where they had
developed the great civilization which they had extended over Egypt .
Their work had been appropriated by the invaders as their own .
The geography of Nubia is the geography of much of present-day
Sudan and beyond . The Nile flows through its sand and rock deserts
with a series of falls and a number of rapids . The country is almost
rainless . It is the land of the great Nubian desert . West of the Nile
towards the Red Sea was the mining area, rich in gold . It was, even
within the concept of these geographical boundaries, the heartland of
the black world .
Already pushed by the invaders from the Mediterranean areas in the
north, northeast and northwest, the Africans were to be further hedged
in from the east and southeast as the Asian hordes continued to stream
across the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean and, much later, as the Dutch
Boers poured in from the southernmost tip of the continent .


The stone age Africans lived about the same as stone age peoples all
over the world . They were hunters, fishermen and craftsmen . Archaeologists have dug up some of their tools and other artifacts at Wadi
Haifa, Wawa, Sai Island, Wadi Hudi, the Selima oasis, Tangasi, Tagiya
and other places . These areas are between the Second and Fourth
Cataracts . Our discussion of specific, concrete evidence of early black
civilization up to this point has been confined to the Egyptian north .
Most notable among the Neolithic finds in the south were the beautiful,
highly burnished, black-topped and red potterly bowls, jars, etc . The
pottery was artistically decorated in wavy ripples or squares . Their
earliest writing was in pictures . So many hundreds of these rock
"messages" were found along the Nile through Nubialand that one may
well wonder if these prehistoric "historians" had posterity in mind .
While many of the pictures portrayed wildlife and other objects of
interest in the environment, others went beyond this role of the artist

The Destruction of Black Civilization
and recorded such historic facts as the conquest of Northern Nubia by
the Nubian Pharaoh of the Old Kingdom, Sneferu, in 2730 B.C.' This
war left a vast wasteland and practically wiped out a civilization that had
been developing before Neolithic times .


For one thing, the land to the south of Egypt had developed a strong
economy that was continuously enriched by a thriving export trade in
paper (from papyrus), ivory, gold, ebony, emeralds, copper, incense,
ostrich feathers (always greatly in demand), and its famous decorated
earthenware . A strong economy also meant a strong Ethiopian army,
posing a threat even to an African-ruled Egypt . From the Egyptian
viewpoint, the "Land of the Blacks" was a threefold threat . Historically,
the Blacks who had fled below the First Cataract to escape the various,
conquests never seemed to accept those conquests as final, and
attempted to retake Egypt from time to time . (These repetitions are
deliberate because nowhere in history is this very important fact clearly
stated .)
But it is clear that, having reconquered the Asian-dominated Lower
Egypt, the black pharaohs sought integration with the Asians instead of
driving them out of the country . This policy of moderation and
accommodation was apparently anathema to the "extremist" Ethiopians,
proud Blacks for whom the prospects of having their children come into
the world with a color distinctly different from their own was at once an
insult to their watching ancestors, and an offense to the Gods themselves .
This attitude might also explain the hostility of the Southern Blacks
toward the Afro-Asian . The latter were not "true" Africans because
they were becoming Egyptians, a mixed breed of many races . They
were, therefore, traitors in the eyes of "true" Africans whose badge of
eternal honor was the blackness of their skin . This was color racism,
deeply rooted, for it sprang from religion : They were "Children of the
Sun" blessed with blackness by the Sun God himself and thus protected
1 . There was a previous reference to Sneferu's "scorched earth" war
in his own home to further illustrate the extreme Southern opposition
to integration with the Asians even under black kings .
The First Cataract
from his fiery rays . They were his children . Their very blackness, therefore, was religious, a blessing and an honor .
The second already stated threat was economic . Egypt's own flourishing export trade, both by sea and caravans, depended heavily on her
imports from the south . To cut these off would mean economic panic in
an otherwise prosperous land .
The third great fear concerned the mighty Nile river. Suppose the
Ethiopians decided to bring Egypt to her knees and starve her to death
by diverting the waters of the Nile? Belief in this possibility was ancient
and ran deep .
The Egyptian conquest of Nubia, therefore, might remove the military
and economic threats, but, insofar as the Nile was concerned, it would
settle nothing . Besides, these Blacks seemed to be unconquerable . A
Sneferu might attempt total extermination of the population, burning
every town and village, destroying farms and cattle, leaving the land in
utter ruin . Yet, as soon as the armies of destruction withdrew, the
surviving Africans would come out from their hiding places and began
to rebuild once again .
Like Upper Egypt, this was a land of cities and towns, of temples and
pyramids. Africans were the great pyramid builders, the temple builders .
They had built the great pyramids of Egypt during their rule . Renewed
activity in temple-building came after Nubia was reoccupied by the
Eighteenth Dynasty rulers . All this renewed zeal in building new towns
and temples in the south was reconstruction . The Old Kingdom raiders
could not destroy all of the temples and other monuments .
The returning Egyptians, therefore, had found many fine temples still
in use, others in ruins . All Ethiopian inscriptions on the temples and
monuments were erased and Egyptian inscriptions substituted . All
outstanding African creations that could not be converted and claimed
as the work of Egyptians were destroyed, for now "Egyptian" meant
"white"-Asian or European . This was done "to promote national
unity." Ethiopian inscriptions, of course, recorded victories over Egypt .
The Arabs were to carry out the work of eradication in a far more
thoroughgoing manner at a later time . All of the South was never
completely conquered . The reconquest we are now discussing extended
forty or fifty miles below Abu Hamed . History continued to repeat itself .
Below the area of conquest the Africans continued to rebuild, reorganizing their fighting forces, and watching an overextended Egypt
become weaker and weaker under weak pharaohs who were unable to
Meroe, one of 25 Major Cities in the Heartland of Black Civilization where the first
pyramids were built . Still standing after over 6,000 years . The Blacks carried these and
other advanced ideas as they spread over Egypt, then Northern Ethiopia .
The First Cataract

cope with the interminable struggle for power among the Asians,
Egyptians and other incursive groups . In these cycles of consolidation
followed by fragmentation into numerous chiefdoms and principalities,
Egypt mirrored the results of the human power craze not only in Africa
but generally throughout the world . Yet in the long view of her history,
Egypt's overall record was one of consolidation and unity that, at times,
was not seriously broken for a thousand years .
Napata was a beautiful city that was favored by surroundings that
helped to make it so . It was located below the Fourth Cataract above the
great curve where the Nile had turned southward and, as though
changing its mind, turned north again . An imposing hill, the "Throne of
the Sun God," was the site of temples . The city itself was regarded as the
"Holy of Holies," ; the capital of what the Egyptians called "The Land of
the Gods." But "Napata" referred not only to this central city, but
included what today we would call a metropolitan area that covered
towns and villages for miles in all directions from the present-day town
of Karima . It was to this area that African leaders, including priests of
the various cults, retreated when things got too hot in Egypt . Here also,
certain African kings preferred to stay even when their position and
power in Egypt were unchallenged . Most of the royal burials in pyramids
were at Kurru . The largest pyramid in Ethiopia is that of King Taharqa
at Nuri .
After the Assyrian-Greek invasion in 590 B.C ., the city was again
almost completely destroyed . The capital was moved to the other side of
the river to Meroe, the historic industrial center .
The Blacks apparently had been more concerned with the development of their copper industry than with iron . Iron ore was in abundance .
The earlier failure to exploit it, especially for military weapons, was the
reason Assyrians, with their superior iron weapons, were able to sweep
the Blacks out of Egypt, invading the Heartland and destroying the
Holy City of Napata . The Africans had long since learned the use of
iron . They knew all about the smelting process . Why did they allow the
Assyrians to get ahead of them? Granting that the ancients kept their
military developments secret, as nations try to do today, it was also true
that spies, including Africans, were active everywhere . The question is
interesting because we are not discussing the period when the African

The Destruction of Black Civilization
had ultimately surrendered to despair and retrogression, but a period of
African power, high civilization and a greatness respected and feared by
the ancient world . Even after the onslaught by the Assyrians and their
allies, the Africans were to rebuild, from the new capital city of Meroe, a
civilization greater than the one just destroyed .
There were many lesser states and countless small chiefdoms in the
vast land mass that began where the effective control by Ethiopia
ended .
Through all these milleniums of ups and downs, of trials and errors,
of great victories and disastrous defeats, through it all the central drive
of this once-black land was in the direction of consolidation and
progress . Tribes were united into one nation either voluntarily or, that
failing, by force . Strong armies were maintained to protect and expand
their civilization . The retaking of that part of the homeland that
extended north alone the Nile to the Mediterranean was at once the
deathless dream, the impassioned goal, and the cornerstone of their
foreign policy . These Africans battled the invading Asians decade after
decade and century after century until their resistance to conquest and
enslavement extended over four thousand years .
From ancient days, therefore, the Africans had had, in the very center
of the heartland on the continent, a history from which their posterity
could learn how unity alone provided the condition for strength and
progress, and that each one of a thousand little "independent" chiefdoms were but a standing invitation to the aggressors and the ultimate
domination of all . Why did the Africans fail to take this message of
salvation as a revealed truth from their own history? What dimmed
civilization's light on Barkal Hill and caused an ultimate withdrawal to
the bush and the scattering of people hither and yon like hunted beasts?
Why did Africans begin to retire from the race with other advancing
peoples and fall so far behind that even the memory of former greatness
could not inspire a revival because that memory had been almost
completely blotted out? I have been detailing some of the answers
throughout, and in later chapters we shall explore further answers to
questions raised .
We now cross to the west bank of the Nile and journey farther south
~to the city of Meroe . It is the eighth century B .C ., and the move to
Meroe was simply a move to what was already the southern capital, only
now, instead of having two capital cities in the South, there would be
only one .


A distinguished line of leaders followed Tanutamon to the throne in
653 B.C ., Atlanersa, Senkamanseken, Anlaman, Aspalta, Amtalka and
Malenakan-palace, temple, and pyramid builders all . Two of the
greatest temples were built by King Aspalta at Meroe : the Sun Temple
and the Temple of Amon . 2 The imposing pyramids and rows of huge
royal statues added to the majesty and magnificence of Meroe . The
royal tombs, as in Egypt, were the repositories of the nation's history .
From them archaeologists were able to determine a line of forty-one
rulers after the conquest of Lower Nubia . These monuments were not
only sources of early African history from within but, of the highest
impottance, they were elaborately decorated outside with both the first
form of writing, hieroglyphics, and the more advanced African
inscriptions in their own invented writing .
For the Africans themselves had invented writing, and all attempts to
connect this ancient achievement with Egyptian or Asiatic influence
have failed . Here the "external influence" school has suffered a major
defeat, because the written records found on statues, altars, tombstones,
graffiti, etc ., were so distinctly African that their native origin could not
be successfully disputed . Moreover, the African system of writing was
very different from the Egyptian . It was simpler and had vowels,
whereas Egyptian had none . There were twenty-three characters or
letters in the African alphabet, four vowel signs, seventeen consonants,
and two signs of the syllable . New concepts and new or special words
could be easily introduced by the old picture system . Clarity and easy
reading was assured by measured spacing between words . A system of
numerical symbols for mathematics was developed . The African inscriptions on monuments and such records as those found in royal tombs
were in a special category . General writing was done on tablets ofwood
and skins prepared for that purpose . Such things as rocks, walls, vases
and broken bits and pieces of earthenware comprised other artifacts
where ancient African writing was found .
Again, how and why did all this disappear? How and why was it
blotted out or hidden so completely for two thousand years that an
ignorant world, with unprecedented research facilities in its universities,
2 . It is believed that the temple to Amon was not completed during
Aspalta's lifetime but by his successors .
Sketch, based on detail of the statue of Aspalta,
king of Kush (593-568 B.C .), found in the
temple at Jebel Barkal in Kush . Museum of
Fine Arts, Boston .
The First Cataract 129
still believes, teaches and proclaims that the black man had never
developed a civilization of his own?
It has been noted that the attractions of Ethiopia, "The Land of the
Gods," were great not only because the Egyptians regarded it as the
main source of their religion, but also because of its socio-political,
economic and strategic importance . When African kings reconquered
Egypt and became "Egyptian" pharaohs, they still longed for the
motherland to the south, desiring to unite the whole of it with Egypt
into one vast empire . They would often retire there, some wanting their
final resting place to be in a pyramid below the First Cataract . To the
south rested their ancestors whose company they were to join . Here was
the capital city of both the black man's world and that of his heaven as
well, the Holy City of Napata .
During the different periods in which Napata came under a foreign
yoke, the capital city of Meroe had to become somewhat holy in its own
right, and many of the kings, queens, and other leaders were buried in
pyramids there . These were constructed of stone outside of the city
proper, sometimes at a visible distance of two or more miles . They were
built to stand forever, an attempt that stemmed from the African's
actual belief in immortality . This is why their faith included the natural
assumption that those who had passed on, their ancestors, were living in
the "Great Beyond," and were, therefore, in the most favorable position
to represent the interests of their kinsmen below ; or, in short, to serve as
mediators between God and man .
The pyramids ringing the city not only added to the physical beauty
of the surroundings, but they were also the silent sentinels, the ever
watchful ancestral presence from which might come either a benediction
or a curse .
Earlier, you may recall, I was unsparing in my criticism of those
African societies which seemed to be governed by fatalism and failed to
counterattack against their natural and human enemies. As I read the
record, it' seemed to me that these groups did not try to meet the awful
challenges which confronted them . They gave up too readily and
refused to ignore tribal lines or to unite for common survival strategies .
They remained scattered here and there, like hunted animals, moving
into barbarism and savagery . Such were my strictures and, obviously, I
did not give the whole story, even about these groups .
Now, however, and by a glorious contrast, we are in the midst of
Blacks, the core group of all Africa, who met the challenge on all fronts
The Queen of Ethiopia at

Piankhi, following Kashta in 720 B.C ., began what was quickly to
become again one of the greatest world powers of the time . Ethiopia was
united with Afro-Asian Egypt under a single imperial rule that extended
from the Mediterranean in the north to an undefined boundary in the
south . Also unknown was how far its eastern boundary extended
southward along the Indian Ocean coastland, how much of Uganda
Meroe, c . 4th century B .C .
and from every direction ; and who fought on and on through the
centuries, against the forces of man and nature until they, themselves,
were completely overwhelmed .
Three thousand years ago the desert, while slowly moving in on
Africa, had not advanced to where it is today . There was more arable
land in Ethiopia, although its agriculture did not match that of the rich
delta region of Egypt . The Blacks were, however, mainly agriculturists
like other Africans . Even with their remarkable industrial development,
farming went on on both sides where the "two Niles" met in their land
before continuing as one great river through Egypt to the Mediterranean
Sea . Nor should the importance of the Atbara river be overlooked .
Even though the surrounding deserts were a problem insofar as
agricultural expansion was desired, the more immediate problem was
famine from drought . There were years during which no rain fell at all
and not a hopeful cloud appeared in the sky .
The Afrians met the challenge by constructing a national system of
reservoirs . These were strategically located around the capital, at
Musawarat, Naga, Hordan, Umm, Usuda, in the Gezira region, at
Duanib, Basa, and doubtlessly at other sites not yet excavated .
This master plan to defeat drought and famine by a system of
reservoirs was more important than all of the architectural art that
found expression in their beautiful statues, temples, palaces, columns
and pyramids . The reservoirs were more significant than the monuments,
important as these were in hiding the black man's intellectual achievements in the invention of writing deep under the sands .
I rate the reservoirs as the supreme achievement because they reflect
the real measure of African man as he met the challenge to survival
head-on, with a constructive counter-attack against the adverse forces of
earth, sun and sky . The irrigation system, made reasonably effective
with their oxen-powered wheels, was a part of this challenge to adverse
circumstances .
1 3 2

The Destruction of Black Civilization
and Abyssinia was included, or how far westward the empire extended .3
All this is not so important as the point that during this period of
triumph, world fame, fear, and an unprecedented prosperity from a
flourishing trade with about one-half of the world, African rulers
continued to neglect the updating of their military and naval defenses .
Iron was the basis of the technological revolution in warfare . That the
Assyrians, Hittites, Persians and other Asiatic nations were equipping
their armies with new types of iron weapons, and that these were
devastatingly more effective than stone and copper weapons had to be
well-known to the Africans . It was not news . As was mentioned before,
they not only knew about the use of iron but they had long since
developed the iron smelting processes . The trouble was the highly
secretive royal monopoly . No secret was more zealously guarded than
the smelting of iron . This meant rigidly limited production . Here.was
fear out-matching both reason and the most elementary common sense .
This over-secretiveness which inhibited the expansion of iron production
was to contribute mightily to the success of Assyrian arms over them .
Prosperity, too, may have blurred the African's vision . Too much
success can be dangerous . In this case so much wealth was piled up from
foreign trade, especially in gold, ivory and copper, that the question of
iron, if raised, may have been dismissed as "economically unsound ."
Whatever the reasons were, the fact is that the great iron industries
which had developed in this center, spreading over Africa, could have
started centuries before .
Even as early as 300 B .C ., when iron smelting was employed for more
useful purposes than ornaments, the royal monopoly still prevented
widespread use . That they knew of the importance of iron is shown by
the fact that kings and high priests were often heads of the guild, and
the chief iron master would often gain the status of what a Prime
Minister is today . Regardless of the delay, iron smelting and tool-making
got underway on a vast scale in Ethiopia at a most crucial period for
Africa . Its center was Meroe, and it appears that the biggest iron works
were in and around this capital city . This development was at a crucial
period because it was the period of increasing migrations from the
3 . This whole period of black achievement is minimized by writers
who substitute Meroe, the city, for Ethiopia, the empire . Ethiopian
writing then becomes "some Meroetic inscriptions," etc .
The First Cataract
heartland and the scattering of groups all over Africa . They carried their
knowledge of this great technological revolution wherever they went,
and they began the use of iron and the development of iron industries
wherever they had had the opportunity to settle in iron ore areas and
remain settled long enough to create a stable society .
This spread of ironworking from the cradle of black civilization is just
another example of how other fundamental African institutions spread
over the continent, north as well as south, and remained basically .
unchanged down through the centuries, no matter how numerous were
the groups into which the original society became fragmented or how
countless were the various languages and dialects that resulted from
that segmentation . There were, as a matter of course, many variations
and modifications by different survival groups . The most remarkable of
the facts was that even those groups that were pushed back into a state
of barbarism still held on (God only knows how) to some of the basic
institutions of the society from which they descended from one to two
thousand years before . Neither Christian Europe or Muslim Asia were
able to completely destroy those institutions, even in the vast regions
over which both had supreme control . And this is why, in a previous
discussion, I had suggested a smile of compassion when you read or hear
about "Egyptian influence" on this or that black society because, in
general, all that could possibly be meant is the "influence of early black
civilization on subsequent black societies ._"
The expansion of the iron culture, however, was a revolution in
technology that ushered in a new age and gave new hope to a despairing
people . It meant the use of new instruments of production in agriculture,
and the industrial crafts, and, of great importance for a refugee people,
for a new kind of military organization and defense . It can be seen, then,
that the "Motherland of the Blacks," centered on the Nile around the
cataracts, provided her wandering sons and daughters with the
instruments of survival, a knowledge that still served them well centuries
after the Arabs and Turks had overran that Motherland .
The memory of many things had been lost, however . Who remembered Thebes, Napata, Memphis, Elephantine, Heracleopolis or
Nekheb? Indeed, who remembered even Meroe, the most advanced
center not only of the African age, but also of writing? And what of the
other important towns and cities in Southern Ethiopia (Nubia-Cush),
Musawarat, Nuri, Panopolis, Kerma, Assuan, Soleb, Abu Simbel,
Kurusku, Samnah, Philae, Kawa, Dongola, etc? Our constant references
1 34

The Destruction of Black Civilization
to Napata and Meroe might lead those who do not look at the map to
think that there were only two important cities in the land .
Forgetting the names of ancient centers of importance was nothing
compared to the tragedy of the Blacks in almost completely forgetting
the very art of writing which they themselves invented! This was one of
the most tragic losses, to repeat, that was ever suffered by a whole
people . And in view of the anti-black course of subsequent history, the
Blacks needed their written language and records more than any other
people . Just how and why this people discontinued the use of writing
has been set forth rather clearly and in some detail in the foregoing
pages . However, the matter is of such transcendent importance that I
hope some black scholar will devote an entire book detailing this one
episode in the long history of Africans . The story would cover the
periods of migrations and dispersions when writing was needless if not
impossible, to the general loss of the art itself . I say "general loss" again
because, of course, some African societies did not completely lose the
art of writing even under conditions where its use seemed utterly futile .
The most important fact to keep in mind, however, is that we are
considering the early age when relatively few people could write, a small
professional class, the scribes . All books, scrolls, inscriptions, letters, etc .,
were written by them . Therefore, in any society where the scribes were
either captured or, for whatever reason, disappeared, the art of writing
in that society died . In view of the developments in Black Africa, the
disappearance of writing is not a mystery at all .
Conquest and domination tended to check migrations and bring a
larger measure of iron-ruled stability to the invaded region . An integral
part of that iron rule was the introduction of the conquerors' speech and
writing, the first step in the process of conquering the soul and minds-of
the Blacks along with their bodies . This was easy because the knowledgestarved "key people" among the Blacks eagerly grasped Arabic, French,
Portuguese, English, or German as the best route to status in a new
civilization . Most of this developed later than the period we have been
summarizing, the thousand years in Ethiopia after its last success in
retaking Egypt and its defeat and withdrawal with the fall of the
Twenty-Fifth Dynasty . Here we speak of the period from sixth century
B.C . to the fourth century of the Christian church in Ethiopia


(1) (2) (Last Page) | (1 of 3 pages) (» Go Up)

You must Sign in or Sign Up to post content

For you to post content on this website you have to log in or register, it only take few minute to create account

Go Up

Recommended for you

The Tallest Skyscrapers Under Construction Per Continent As Of April 2019 What Is The Language Of Instructions In Most Of Schools In Kenya State Urged To Speed Up Construction Of The Mega Convention Centre Oil And Gas Mega Project Construction In Progress, Commissioning Will Start Soon

Currently: 1 guest(s) reading this article

Sections: How To, Kenyans247 ads, Properties, Naija Forums, Politics, Innovation, Webmasters, Computers, Art, Graphics & Video, Technology Market, Emojipedia, TV/Movies, Forum Games, Social Media/K247 Chit-Chat, Sports, Burundi Forum, Tanzania Forum, Rwanda Forum, South Sudan Forum, Ugandan Forum,

About Us | Terms & Conditions | Privacy Policy | FAQ's | Disclaimer | Copyright | Contact Us | Advertise With Us | Download K247 APP | Marketplace | Moderator Policy | We Are Hiring | Kenya Radio and TV Stations Listen and Watch Live | Letter From the C.E.O | Kenya Radio Stations Live | Kenya TV Stations Live | Kenya - Newspapers and News Sites and popular blog | Forum Rules | Featured LinksFollow Us on TwitterLike Us on Facebook

Kenyans247 - Copyright © 2019 - 2021 Sande Kennedy. All rights reserved. See How To Advertise.
Disclaimer: Every Kenyans247 member is solely responsible for anything that he/she posts or uploads on Kenyans247.